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Koldinghus

Geschichte:

Koldinghus blev anlagt ved 1200-tallets midte som en af kronens vigtigste borge ved grænsen til hertugdømmet Schleswig. Ifølge historikeren Arild Huitfeldt (1546-1609) påbegyndte hertug Abel af Sønderjylland fæstningsbyggeri i Kolding i 1248, hvilket imidlertid ikke kan bekræftes. Samtidige optegnelser i årbøger og krøniker vidner derimod om, at kong Erik Glipping (1259-1286) byggede en borg i Kolding 1268. Byggearbejderne kan være fortsat af Erik Menved (1286-1319), der efter at have nedkæmpet et bondeoprør i 1312 tvang bønderne til at befæste Kolding. Koldinghus nævnes sammen med Skanderborg og Riberhus i Christoffer II’s (1320-1326, 1329-1332) håndfæstning som undtagelser fra kongens almene pligt til at nedrive kongelige borge i Nørrejylland. Fra grænseborgen Koldinghus administreredes et hovedlen bestående o. 1400 af Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans og halvdelen af Andst herred. Koldingshus var ofte rammen om vigtige forhandlinger og møder og gæstedes hyppigt af kongerne.

Koldinghus was founded in the middle of the 13th century as an important royal stronghold near the border with the duchy of Schleswig. According to the historian Arild Huitfeldt (1546-1609) Duke Abel of Schleswig initiated the building of fortifications in Kolding in 1248 but this however, can not be confirmed by other sources. Contemporary annals and chronicles tell that King Eric Glipping (1259-1286) built a castle in Kolding in 1268. Building was possibly continued by King Eric Menved (1286-1319) who crushed a peasants’ revolt in 1312 and consequently forced the defeated to fortify Kolding. Koldinghus as well as the castles in Skanderborg and Ribe are mentioned in the coronation charter of King Christopher II (1320-1326, 1329-1332) as examples from the Kings otherwise general obligation to pull down royal castles in the northern part of Jutland. The border castle Koldinghus was the administrative seat of a royal main fief which around 1400 included Brusk, Jerlev, Holmans and 50 pct. of Andst herred’s. Koldinghus was quite often the setting of important negotiations and meetings and was often visited by the Kings. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Koldinghus blev anlagt ved midten af 1200-tallet men de ældste bygningslevn (nordfløj og vestfløj) i det nuværende firefløjede anlæg stammer fra senmiddelalderen, formentlig 1400-tallet. Dele af voldstedet kan dog meget vel stamme fra det tidligste anlæg.

Koldinghus was founded in the middle of the 13th century but the oldest surviving masonry in the present four-winged castle dates from the late Middle Ages, probably the 15th century. Elements of the moated site might very well be part of the first castle. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Koldinghus blev oprindeligt anlagt nord for middelalderbyen på et højdedrag, der mod vest lå ca. 22 m over daglig vande. Ved anlæggelsen af en grav blev højdedraget delt i en højere borgbanke og en lavere forborg. Borgbanken, der var lidt mindre end det nuværende slots ydermure, blev yderligere omgivet af en indre grav, der mod øst var ca. 14 m bred og mod syd ca. 24 m bred. Adgangen foregik fra øst over forborgen. En yderste grav stod i forbindelse med byens grav. Af borgens bygninger fra 12-1300-tallet er ikke fundet sikre spor, og de ældste bygningsdele i det nuværende firefløjede slot i teglsten stammer fra 1400-tallet. I den midterste del af nordfløjen er således bevaret rester af en teglstensbygning i (ca. 28 x 10,4 m) i to stokværk over kælder, der på baggrund af senere kilder er blevet tilskrevet Christoffer af Bayern (1440-1448). Fløjen menes at have afløst en ældre teglstensbygning, der er påvist arkæologisk. Den nuværende vestfløj henføres almindeligvis til Christian I (1448-1481) og dateres traditionelt til 1470’erne. Bygningen, der har været ca. 36 m lang og rejst i to stokværk over kælder samt et øvre skyttestokværk, var udstyret med en fornem liséninddelt facade med store spidsbuede vinduer og foroven afsluttet af en rundbuefrise. I facadens sydlige del har en dør ført ud på ringmurens skyttegang. At borgen har været lukket af en ringmur mod syd og øst er også arkæologisk påvist. Om yderligere middelalderlige bygninger i borggården vides intet. Borgen fik i hovedtrækkene den endnu eksisterende form og udstrækning under Christian III, men ombyggedes også under Christian IV og Frederik IV i 16-1700-tallet. Koldinghus brændte 1808 og stod som ruin frem til 1930’erne, da en delvis genopbygning og overdækning gennemførtes. I 1970’erne iværksattes et komplet restaureringsprojekt.

Originally Koldinghus was built on a high mound to the north of the medieval town. The mound which to the west rose about 22 m above the water table was divided in two by a deep moat in order to separate the main castle from the lower bailey. Furthermore, the main castle which was slightly smaller than the outer walls of the present castle was surrounded by an inner moat about 14 metres wide to the east and 24 metres wide to the south. Access was from the bailey. An outer moat was connected to the town defences. Solid remains of buildings from the 13th and 14th century have not been found and the oldest surviving masonry in the present four-winged brick castle dates from the 15th century. In the central part of the north wing remains of a brick building (c. 28 x 10.4 m) holding two floors above basement is seen. According to later sources it is ascribed to King Christopher of Bavaria (1440-1448). According to archaeological finds the building seems to have succeeded an older but undated building. The present west wing is traditionally ascribed to King Christian I (1448-1481) and dated to the 1470s. The building was c. 36 metres long and had two floors above basement along with a defensive lower upper storey with loopholes. The facade facing the court yard was divided by pilasters, had large pointed windows and under the cornice ran a frieze of round arches. In the southern section of the façade a door led to the gallery of the curtain wall. A curtain wall stretching from the west wing to the north wing has been archaeologically substantiated but additional medieval structures are unknown. The present layout of the castle was mainly obtained by King Christian III (1534-1559) but also King Christian IV and Frederic IV rebuilt Koldinghus during the 17th and 18th century. In 1808 the castle burned down and it appeared as a ruin until the 1930s when a partial reconstruction and roofing was initiated. In the 1970s a complete restoration was commenced. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Bygningsarkæologiske og arkæologiske undersøgelser er udført på Koldinghus adskillige gange siden 1800-tallets slutning af Nationalmuseet, private arkitekter samt Museet på Koldinghus i forbindelse med restaurering og genopførelse. Størst viden om den middelalderlige borg fremkom ved udgravninger foretaget af Museet på Koldinghus i slutningen af 1970’erne samt 1980’erne (Vivi Jensen).

Surveys of the standing structures as well as archaeological excavations have been carried out at Koldinghus numerous times since the late 19th century both by The National Museum of Denmark, private architects and Museet på Koldinghus (the castle museum) in relation to restoration works and the re-establishment of parts of the castle. Knowledge of the medieval castle is mostly due to excavations conducted by Museet på Koldinghus in the late 1970s and 1980s (Vivi Jensen).