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Boringholm

Geschichte:

Dendrokronologiske dateringer viser, at Boringholm anlagdes 1368, men skriftlige kilder afslører ikke, hvem der stod bag. Borgen er bygget i de politisk meget ustabile sidste år af Valdemar Atterdags regeringstid, hvor bl.a. jyske stormænd gjorde opstand mod kongen 1368, og ved denne tid kan såvel kongemagtens modstandere som støtter have haft interesse i stedet. En borg i Boring optræder første gang i de skriftlige kilder 1400 og tilhørte da kronen, som igen var velkonsolideret. Ejerskabet bekræftedes igen 1406, hvorefter Boringholm forsvinder ud af kilderne, og borgen må formodes at være nedlagt ved denne tid. Tidligere blev Boringholm knyttet til slægten Brok, der senest fra 1323 ejede gods i Boring. Godset blev overdraget til Valdemar Atterdag i 1365, men der kan ikke påvises en sammenhæng mellem Brokkerne og Boringholm.

Dendrochronological dates demonstrate that Boringholm was built 1368, but written sources do not reveal who was behind. Building was commenced during the very troubled political circumstances of the last years of King Valdemar Atterdag’s reign (1340-1375). In 1368 a large part of the Jutland Nobility challenged the King’s royal authority and at that time both the King’s opponents as well as his supporters had interest in the site of Boringholm. The first documentary record of a fortified site in Boring was in 1400 when the castle belonged to the Crown which had regained political control. The Crown’s ownership was confirmed in 1406, but after this the castle vanishes from the records and was probably abandoned. Boringholm has been linked to the noble family of Brok who owned land in Boring at least from 1323. The Brok estate was conveyed to Valdemar Atterdag in 1365, but linking the family to the building of Boringholm is not sustainable. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Ifølge dendrokronologiske dateringer blev borgen anlagt 1368, bygningerne opført i 1370’erne, og borgen udvidet 1380. Nedlagt i 1400-tallets begyndelse.

According to dendrochronological analysis the stronghold was built in 1368, the houses were built in the 1370s, and the castle was enlarged in 1380. It was abandoned in the early 15th century. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Boringholm blev anlagt på en kunstig banke med udgangspunkt i en lav naturlig lerbanke I Boring (ell. Rask) sø. Funktionen af de ældste konstruktioner på banken bestående af rækker af pæle og stolper dateret til vinteren 1368/69 er uvis. Adgangen foregik fra en bro mod syd dateret til vinteren 1367/68. Inden længe blev den centrale del af den naturlige banke udvidet mod nord til en kvadratisk konstruktion på 34 x 34 m dannet af opfyld af gødning, ler, grene, udtjent bygningstømmer og trægenstande mm., der blev holdt på plads af spunspæle. På denne banke rejstes et firefløjet bygningskompleks omkring en gårdsplads. Bygningerne var opført i en tidlig form for uregelmæssigt bindingsværk, og sten og tegl var kun anvendt til gulve, ovne og ildsteder. Takket være dendrokronologi kan byggeforløbet og reparationer dateres ret præcist. Nordfløjen (30 x 6 m) var rejst over tre stolperækker dateret til 1370/71. Det udfyldende vægmateriale var lerklining eller planker. Efter en brand rejstes en ny nordfløj indenfor perioden ca. 1371-86, sandsynligvis ca. 1376. Bygningen var inddelt i mindst tre rum med velbevarede rester af en dør til gårdpladsen, fodremme, stolper, skillevægge, gulve, ildsted og bageovn. Det udfyldende vægmateriale var lerklining samt planker. Vestfløjen (ca. 23 x 5,5 m) var rejst over stolper dateret til ca. 1370 og 1372. Gulvet bestod af et lerlag over planker. Også sydfløjen (højst 24 m lang og 5 m bred) var rejst over stolper, og en central solid stenkonstruktion kan have udgjort ovn ell. ildsted. Østfløjen, der stødte op til nordfløjen, målte blot 6-7 x 3 m. Efter alt at dømme blev såvel østfløjen som den nordlige del af vestfløjen påvirket af nordfløjens brand. Syd for østfløjen opførtes 1371/72 en indre bro, der blev repareret 1376/77 (nordfløjens brand?) men senere ombygget til en dæmningslignende konstruktion. Syd for broen var bankens østside sandsynligvis kantet af palisade. I 1380 blev borgbanken ved opfyldning (gødning, ler, bygningstømmer etc.) og nedramning af pæle udvidet mod vest og øst til et langovalt areal målende ca. 65 x 162 m. Den vestlige del blev dog aldrig opfyldt og må have stået delvist under vand i lighed med en 7-8 m bred grav omkring den nordre del af den centrale banke. Samtidig opførtes et brohoved ved den søndre bro samt en nordre bro og brohoved. Brohovederne har muligvis båret bygninger. Den yngste daterede reparation udførtes mellem ca. 1386 og 1401. Ildpåvirket tømmer antyder, at borgen, hvis vestlige del ved nedlæggelsen endnu ikke var fuldført, blev ødelagt ved brand, sandsynligvis efter at være blevet forladt.

Boringholm was built on an artificial island constructed as a platform on a natural underwater ridge in Lake Boring (or Rask). The function of the earliest structures consisting of rows of posts and piles, dated to the winter of 1368/69, is not clear. It was approached from the south by a bridge dated to the winter of 1367/68. Shortly after the central part of the natural ridge was extended to the north, so that it measured 34 x 34 m. The area was levelled and filled with dung, clay, brushwood, old building-timbers, artefacts etc. and held in place by piling. On the main platform a square building complex made up of four wings round a central courtyard was built. The buildings were of half-timbered construction. Stone and brick were used only for floors, ovens and fireplaces. The sequence of buildings and repairs are dated very precisely thanks to dendrochronology. The northern wing (30 x 6 m) stood on three rows of driven piles dated to 1370/71. Its walls had been built of some sort of irregular half-timbering filled with wattle-and-daub or timber. After a fire a new building was built between c. 1371 and 1386, probably c. 1376. It was divided into at least three rooms and very well-preserved with traces of a door to the yard, sill-beams, partition walls, floors, fireplace, baking oven etc. The half-timbered walls were filled with wattle-and-daub and planking. The western wing (c. 23 x 5.5 m) stood on rows of driven piles, dated to c. 1370 and c. 1372. The floor was formed of a layer of clay upon planks. Also the southern wing (at most 24 m long and 5 m broad) was founded on driven posts. A solid central stone structure might have been an oven or fireplace. The eastern wing which to the north butted against the northern wing seems to have been quite small (6-7 x 3 m). Presumably both, the eastern wing and the northern part of the western wing, were affected by the northern wing’s fire. To the south of the eastern wing an inner bridge was built 1371/72. It was repaired 1376/77 (the north wing’s fire?) but later altered into a dam-like structure. To the south of the bridge the main platform was probably edged by palisade. In 1380 the platform was enlarged to the east and west, taking on an elongated oval form (c. 65 x 162 m) created by infilling (clay, dung, old building-timbers etc.) held in place by piling and posts. The western part of the enlarged island was however never filled up and must have remained partly under water similar to the moat (7-8 m broad) which protected the northern half of the main platform. At the same time the bridgehead of the southern bridge and the northern bridge and its bridgehead were built. The bridgeheads might have carried buildings. The latest dated repair of the castle took place between c. 1386 and 1401. Scorched timber suggest, that the castle, which had not been completed by the time it was abandoned, was probably razed by fire, but this presumably took place after it had been deserted in good condition. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Boringholm blev udgravet i årene 1906-16 af Chr. Axel Jensen (i 1906 sammen med kollegaen C.M. Smidt), inspektør på Nationalmuseet. En koteopmåling udførtes i 1970’erne, og i 1999-2000 blev der optaget tømmer til dendrokronologisk datering. Samtidig foretoges dendrokronologiske dateringer af genstande og bygningstømmer. Op til publikationen 2005 (Kock/Roesdahl, Boringholm (2005)) blev alle kildegrupper vedr. Boringholm gennemgået og revideret. De ekceptionelt gode bevaringsforhold for organisk materiale har resulteret i et omfattende genstandsmateriale (bl.a. landets største samling af middelalderfodtøj) og en stor mængde bygningstømmer, der udgør et uvurderligt bidrag til studier af 1300-tallets materielkultur og træbyggeri.

Boringholm was excavated 1906-16 by Chr. Axel Jensen (in 1906 together with his colleague C.M. Smidt), curator in the National Museum. A contour-survey was made in the 1970s and samples were taken for dendrochronological dating in 1999-2000. At the same time artefacts and building-timber were also dendrochronologically dated. Prior to the publication of 2005 (Kock/Roesdahl, Boringholm (2005)) the site was thoroughly studied and reinterpreted. Organic material has been very well preserved and the comprehensive amount of artefacts (eg. the largest collection of medieval footware from modern Denmark) and building-timber provide important elements in understanding 14th century material culture and wooden architecture and technology.