EBIDAT - Die Burgendatenbank

Menu

Næsholm

Geschichte:

Næsholm er ikke kendt fra skriftlige kilder, og det kan ikke afgøres, hvorvidt borgen var privat eller kongelig. Møntfund tyder på et anlæggelsestidspunkt o. 1250, mens de dendrokronologiske dateringer af borgens adgangsbro snarere peger på året 1278. Borgen blev ødelagt i kamp i 1340’erne. En voldsom ødelæggelse på denne tid kunne tyde på et privat anlæg, idet kong Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) i disse år generobrede og samlede riget borg for borg, mens andre forhold peger mod en kongelig besiddelse. Blot 500 m øst for Næsholm ligger voldstedet Nygård, der optræder i kilderne fra 1355 som et kongeligt anlæg og len omfattende hele Ods herred. Nygård kan således meget vel have afløst Næsholm som områdets vigtigste borg, hvilket dog ikke udelukker, at Næsholms bygherre var privat.

Næsholm does not occur in written sources and it is unknown whether the castle was private or royal property. Coins suggest a dating of the site to c. 1250, but the dendrochronological analysis of the access bridge to the castle rather points at the year 1278. The castle was destroyed in the 1340s. A violent destruction at this time implies that the owner was a nobleman since King Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) at that time conquered the Kingdom castle by castle. On the other hand, only 500 metres to the east of Næsholm the moated site of Nygård is found. Nygård means "the new manor". This castle appears in written sources from 1355 as a royal castle and fief including Ods herred. Nygård might very well be the successor of Næsholm as the most important castle of the area though this does not determine the ownership of Næsholm with certainty. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Mens de fundne mønter på Næsholm tyder på et anlæggelsestidspunkt o. 1250, peger de dendrokronologiske dateringer af borgens adgangsbro snarere på året 1278. Borgen blev ødelagt i kamp i 1340’erne.

Coins from Næsholm suggest a dating of the site to c. 1250, but the dendrochronological analysis of the access bridge to the castle rather points at the year 1278. The castle was destroyed in the 1340s. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Næsholm blev anlagt på en halvø i den nu udtørrede Nygård sø sandsynligvis i 1278. Borgbanken, der måler ca. 70 x 75 m, er ca. 5 m høj og omgivet af en ca. 5 m bred og ca. 0,5 m dyb voldgrav og en ca. 1,5 m høj ydervold. Adgangen foregik fra en pælebro fra fastlandet til voldens sydøsthjørne. Bankens sydvestlige fjerdedel er adskilt fra den resterende del af to halsgrave (4 m brede og 2 m dybe), der fra syd og vest løber mod bankens midte. Her ligger hovedtårnet (10 x 10 m), der er opført af teglsten med 3,3 m svære kassemure. En del af nederste stokværks mure står som ruin. Tårnrummet havde oprindeligt et lergulv over et stenlag, som i dag er eksponeret. Indenfor halsgravene på bankens sydvestre del lå et ca. 13 m langt hus med kælder under den sydlige del. Det var tilsyneladende opført af bindingsværk og teglsten og udgjorde sandsynligvis borgens beboelsesbygning. Fra pælebroen i sydøst løber en brolagt vej tværs over banken til et bygningskompleks (ca. 22,5 x 6,4 m) bestående af tre sammenbyggede huse, hvoraf det østre havde kampestenskælder (7 x 6,4 m). I det midterste hus er fundet en ovn, og komplekset har sandsynligvis fungeret som borgens økonomi- og køkkenbygning etc. Hvor broen støder til banken, og den brolagte vej begynder, lå et lille træ- eller bindingsværkshus (5,5 x 3,4 m), hvor borgens vagtmandskab kan have opholdt sig. Udenfor huset er der fundet syldsten fra et kun 1 x 1,5 m stort rum, der er tolket som hundehus til vagthunde!

Næsholm was built on a headland in Lake Nygård (now drained) probably in 1278. The mound which measures c. 70 x 75 m is about 5 m high. It is surrounded by a c. 5 m wide and 0.5 m deep moat and a c. 1.5 m high outer rampart. Access was provided by a wooden bridge from the dry land to the southeast corner of the rampart. The southwest quarter of the mound is enclosed by two moats (4 m wide, 2 m deep) which meet in the centre of the mound where a tower (10 x 10 m) was placed. The tower had 3.3 m wide walls built of bricks. Parts of the walls of the ground floor are preserved as well as remains of the floor which was formed of a layer of clay upon stones. A c. 13 m long house built of bricks and half-timbering with a cellar in the south end was enclosed by the inner moats. The house probably served as the residence of the lord. From the bridge a paved road ran across the mound to a block of domestic buildings (c. 22.5 x 6.4 m) holding three adjoining houses. The eastern house had a stone cellar (7 x 6.4 m), and the house in the middle held an oven. Where the bridge meets the mound and the paved road starts was a small timbered or half-timbered house (5.5 x 3.4 m) which was probably the guardhouse. A small room measuring only 1 x 1.5 m right beside the guardhouse has been interpreted as a dog-house! (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Totaludgravet i perioden 1935-54 af Vilh. la Cour, Nationalmuseet. Resultaterne publiceret i monografi (la Cour, Næsholm (1961)). Der foreligger på Nationalmuseet et stort og righoldigt fundmateriale. I 1989 optagning af bropæle til dendrokronologisk datering. 2011 nye undersøgelser ved Odsherreds Kulturhistoriske Museum i forbindelse med etablering af bro og genskabning af Nygård sø.

During the years from 1935 to 1954 the entire castle site was excavated by Vilh. La Cour, The National Museum. The results were published as a monograph (la Cour, Næsholm (1961)). The excavations have provided a comprehensive amount of artefacts which is stored at The National Museum. In 1989 piles from the bridge were dendrochronologically dated. Due to the future re-establishment of the drained Lake Nygård and the construction of a bridge to the castle Odsherreds Kulturhistoriske Museum has carried out new surveys in 2011.