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Dragsholm

Geschichte:

Dragsholm tilhørte i middelalderen Roskilde bispestol. I 1313 udstedte biskoppen et brev på "Draugh", der traditionelt identificeres med Dragsholm, der omtales direkte første gang 1336 (1334?). Anlægget er imidlertid betydeligt ældre og må på baggrund af arkitektoniske detaljer henføres til 1200-tallets første del. Senest ca. 1370 var Dragsholm hovedsædet i et betydeligt biskoppeligt len. Efter reformationen overgik Dragsholm til kronen, der til tider benyttede borgen som statsfængsel. 1664 kom Dragsholm i privat eje. Dragsholm belejredes forgæves under Grevens Fejde (1534-36), men blev 1658 indtaget af svenskerne, der angiveligt sprængte dele af anlægget i luften det følgende år.

In the Middle Ages Dragsholm belonged to the Bishop of Roskilde. In 1313 the Bishop sealed a letter at "Draugh", which is identified with Dragsholm. The name Dragsholm appears in written sources in 1336 (1334?), but the building is much older. According to the architecture the castle must be dated to the first half of the 13th century. Around 1370 at the latest Dragsholm was the administrative center of a large Episcopal fief. After the reformation (1536) Dragsholm was taken over by the Crown. From time to time it was in use as a state prison. In 1664 Dragsholm became private property. The castle was besieged, but never taken during the civil war 1534-36 (The Counts Quarrel). In 1658 the Swedes succeeded in capturing Dragsholm which supposedly was partly blown up by the occupying forces the following year. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Det ældste bygningsparti på Dragsholm, en fornem vinkelbygning, må henføres til 1200-tallets første del. Senere i middelalderen blev dette bispepalads om- og udbygget til et firefløjet borganlæg med et fremspringende porttårn i vest og et kraftigt hjørnetårn i nordøst. Dragsholms senmiddelalderlige bygningshistorie er endnu ikke udredt eller dateret nærmere. I 1638 blev borgen udvidet og restaureret og 1697 skabtes den nuværende hovedbygning. I 1700-tallet erstattedes vestfløjen af den nuværende spærremur, og nord- og sydfløjen blev ombygget.

The oldest part of Dragsholm, a fine L-shaped building, must be dated to the first half of the 13th century. During the later Middle Ages the Bishop’s palace was rebuilt and considerably enlarged into a four-winged castle with a projecting gate tower to the west and a large tower in the northeast corner. The medieval building activity is not yet fully investigated or precisely dated. In 1638 the castle was rebuilt and enlarged and in 1697 the present main building came to light. In the 18th century the west wing was replaced by the present wall and the north- and south wings were rebuilt. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Voldstedet består af en firesidet borgbanke (ca. 70 x 60 m), som mod syd grænser op til den tørlagte Lammefjord, og på de andre sider er omgivet af delvis vandfyldte grave, hvorover der i nord og øst fører dæmninger. Banken hæver sig indtil 9 m over vandspejlet. Til gravens nordvestlige hjørne slutter sig en nu tørlagt spærregrav, som afskærer et syd for denne og vest for borgbanken liggende voldstykke, der har karakter af et forværk. Ca. 75 m nordøst for borgbanken findes desuden en delvis vandfyldt ydre voldgrav, som er ca. 130 m lang (øst-vestlig retning), og hvorover der fører en dæmning. Adgangen til voldstedet har altid været placeret i nord. Den ældste del af det nuværende trefløjede bygningsanlæg rummer rester af en fornem middelalderlig vinkelbygning (den østlige del af sydfløjens ydermur og den tilstødende østfløj). Sydfløjen (23,5 m lang, 1 m svær ydermur) i denne vinkelbygning er opført af røde munkesten i munkeskifte på en sokkel af granitkvadre, havde retvinklede stræbepiller på hjørnerne og rummede i 2. stokværk en stor sal med 3 sæt rundbuede trekoblede vinduer. Disse vinduer er meget lig vinduerne i Roskilde domkirkes koromgang, der dateres til o. 1215, og Dragsholms vinkelbygning kan på denne baggrund henføres til 1200-tallets første del. Den tilstødende østfløjs ydermur har kunnet følges 1,5 m uden for den nuværende fløj over en strækning på 24 m. I den senere middelalder opførtes en nordfløj, hvoraf den 2,5 m tykke ydermur med vægtergang er bevaret. En tilsvarende vægtergang tilføjedes den ældre sydfløj, hvis ydermur fik en indre 0,5 m svær forstærkning, der delvist lukkede tregruppe vinduerne. En teglstensbygning langs voldstedets sydkant er påvist arkæologisk. Mod vest, hvor der blot er en spærremur tilbage, opførtes en fløj med et fremspringende porttårn. Over borgens nordøsthjørne rejstes i middelalderens sidste del et nu helt forsvundet svært tårn (ca. 10 x 10 m, 3 m svære mure) med små hængetårne på hjørnerne. Et inventarium fra 1536 nævner bispens kammer, fogedkammer, borgestue, fruerstue, kancelli, kapel, harniskkammer samt adskillige økonomirelaterede rum. Fra tiden omkring 1650 findes to meget oplysende tegninger af Dragsholm, der viser forsvundne bygninger og detaljer som fx de kamtakkede og pinakelprydede gavle.

The rectangular castle mound (c. 70 x 60 m) borders on the drained inlet of Lammefjord to the south and is otherwise surrounded by moats. Dams from north and east cross the moats. The mound rises to a height of 9 m above the surface of the moats. A drained barrier moat is connected to the northwest corner of the inner moat. It borders on a piece of rampart to the west of the mound which might be a bailey. Finally, a c. 130 m long outer moat (east-west) is seen c. 75 m to the northeast of the mound. It is crossed by a dam. Access to the castle mound has always been from the north. The present three-winged manor holds the remains of a fine medieval L-shaped building (the eastern part of the outer wall of the south wing and the adjacent east wing). The building material of the south wing of this building (23.5 m long, 1 m wide outer wall) is brick on a stone plinth. It had right-angled buttresses on the corners and held on the second floor a large hall with three sets of round arched stepped triplet windows. The windows show great resemblance to the upper windows of the ambulatory of the cathedral of Roskilde, which are dated to c. 1215 and based on this Dragsholm can be dated to the first half of the 13th century. Approximately 24 m of the original east end of the house and the outer wall of the adjacent east wing have been uncovered 1.5 m to the east of the present east wing. In the later Middle Ages a north wing was built. Its 2.5 m thick outer wall with an upper gallery is preserved. A similar gallery was added to the older south wing, which at the same time had its outer wall reinforced by 0.5 m on the inside which partially destroyed the triplet windows. A building in brick along the southern edge of the castle mound have been archaeologically substantiated. To the west a forth wing with a projecting gate tower was built. It has been replaced by a later barrier wall. Eventually a square tower (10 x 10 m, 3 m thick walls) was added in the northeast corner of the castle. The tower which has almost completely disappeared had small corner turrets. An inventory of 1536 mentions the Bishop’s Chamber, the bailiff’s chamber, the servants’ dining room, the ladies’ apartment, the chancellery, the chapel and the armoury as well as several domestic rooms and facilities. Two very informative drawings of Dragsholm dating from the middle of the 17th century show demolished buildings such as the towers and details such as the crowstepped gables with pinnacles. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Undersøgt af Nationalmuseet 1895 (Aage Mathiesen), 1919 (Chr. Axel Jensen), 1950-52 (Anton Birch), 1969 (Johannes Hertz), privat udgravning 1974. Slottet opmåltes 1908 af Emil Jørgensen.

Dragsholm was studied and small-scale excavations were carried out by The National Museum in 1895 (Aage Mathiesen), 1919 (Chr. Axel Jensen), 1950-52 (Anton Birch), 1969 (Johannes Hertz), private excavation in 1974. The castle was measured in 1908 by Emil Jørgensen.