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Gjorslev

Geschichte:

Gjorslev hovedgård tilhørte Roskildebispen og kendes i skriftlige kilder fra o. 1370. Biskop Peder Jensen Lodehat (død 1416) opførte den ældste del af det nuværende Gjorslev o. 1400 som privat residens. Peder Lodehat var dronning Margrete Is kansler. Borgen var administrationscentrum i et biskoppeligt fogedi eller len frem til 1540, hvor det overgik til privat adeligt eje.

Gjorslev manor belonged to the bishop of Roskilde. It is mentioned in written sources from c. 1370. Bishop Peder Jensen Lodehat (died 1416) built the oldest part of the present Gjorslev around 1400 as his private residence. Peder Lodehat was the high chancellor to Queen Margrete I (1387-1412). The castle was the administrative centre of an Episcopal fief until 1540. At that time the castle became a nobleman’s estate. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Gjorslev opførtes o. 1400 med grundplan som et latinsk kors med tårn i korsskæringen og et fremspringende polygonalt kapel på sydfløjen. Udover tilføjelsen af et polygonalt trappetårn i 1500-tallet i hjørnet mellem østfløj og kapel synes der ikke at være ændret grundlæggende ved Peder Lodehats bygning før 1666, da østfløjen blev radikalt ombygget. Muligvis fjernedes trappetårnet i denne forbindelse. I løbet af 1700-og 1800-tallet ændredes vinduesforholdene samt etageinddelingen i sydfløjen og kapellet blev nedrevet etc. Middelalderbygningen udgør nu østfløjen i et trefløjet anlæg med sidefløje fra 16-1800-tallet.

Gjorslev was built around 1400 in the shape of a Latin cross with a tower at the intersection and a projecting polygonal chapel on the south wing. Apart from the 16th century addition of a polygonal staircase turret in the corner between the chapel and the eastern transept no major alterations were carried out in the castle of Peder Lodehat until 1666 when the eastern transept was completely rebuilt. Possibly the staircase turret was demolished at this time. In the course of the 18th and 19th centuries the windows were changed, the floor division of the south transept was altered and the chapel was pulled down etc. Today the medieval palace is the east wing in a three-winged manorial house with north and south wings dating from the 17th to the 19th centuries. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Gjorslev ligger i dag på en uregelmæssig, lav banke omgivet af vandgrave på tre sider. Muligvis har banken oprindelig været rund, men gravenes oprindelige udstrækning er ukendt. Den middelalderlige hovedbygning er opført i lokal kridtsten med dekorative bælter af tegl. Grundplanen har form som et latinsk kors med den lange arm mod syd og et 25 m højt kvadratisk tårn (11,6 x 11,6 m) i korsskæringen. På sydfløjens østfacade mod gården fandtes en femsidet kapeludbygning, der er påvist arkæologisk og kendt fra en tegning af borgen fra o. 1670. Tårnet har bevaret 6 stokværk over en hvælvet underetage (nu kælder), mens den middelalderlige krenelerede platform er forsvundet men kendt fra ovennævnte tegning. På tårnets østmur findes udvendigt en tresidet trappeudbygning, der krones af en madonnafigur i højde med en på tårnet omløbende spidsbuefrise. Tårnets hemmeligheder har afløb i en samlebrønd i underetagen. Mens østfløjens indre blev gennemgribende ombygget 1666, er de resterende fløje eller korsarme relativt velbevarede. De er rejst i to stokværk over hvælvede underetager (nu kældre). Sydfløjen måler 10,5 x 15,8 m, vest- og nordfløjen måler 10,5 x 11 m, mens den ombyggede østfløj måler 8,7 x 6,7 m. Borgens hovedetage rummer hvælvede sale (ikke bevaret i sydfløjen). Hvælvene bæres af slanke søjler og har slutsten udsmykket med de danske bispedømmers våben samt våbner fra Roskilde domkapitel o. 1400. I den ombyggede østfløj er i hver langmur bevaret et pendulformet skydeskår (2,8 x 0,7 m, cirkulær åbning måler 0,3 m i diameter) med rester af en vandret planke til fastgørelse af hagebøsse.

Gjorslev is situated on an irregular flat mound surrounded by moats on three sides. Possibly, the moated site was originally rounded but the original size and shape of the moats is unknown. The medieval main building is built of local limestone ashlars with decorative bands of bricks. The building is shaped as a Latin cross with a 25 m tall square tower (11.6 x 11.6 m) at the intersection. At the eastern façade of the south transept was a polygonal projecting chapel which is known both from archaeological excavations and from a drawing of the castle c. 1670. Six storeys above a vaulted ground floor (now basement) are preserved in the tower. Its medieval crenellated parapet is known from the 17th century drawing mentioned above. On the eastern façade of the tower a projecting staircase turret is seen. It is crowned by a statue of the Virgin and under the cornice of the tower runs a frieze of gothic arches. The privies of the tower drain into a large cistern at the ground floor. The eastern transept was completely rebuilt in 1666, but the remaining transepts are relatively well preserved. They hold two storeys above vaulted ground floors (now basements). The southern transept measures 10.5 x 15.8 m, the western and northern transepts measure 10.5 x 11 m while the rebuilt eastern transept measures 8.7 x 6.7 m. The main floor of the castle holds vaulted halls (demolished in the south transept). The vaults rest on slim pillars and columns and they all have sculptured keystones with coats of arms of the Danish Dioceses and members of the Roskilde Chapter around 1400. In the north and south walls of the otherwise rebuilt eastern transept loopholes for guns are preserved. They are of pendulum shape (2.8 x 0.07 m, the circular slit measures 0.3 m in diameter) and hold on the inside a horizontal wooden sill for fastening a gun. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

I 1914 og de følgende år foretog Chr. Axel Jensen, Nationalmuseet, bygningsarkæologiske undersøgelser på Gjorslev og mindre arkæologiske udgravninger på gårdspladsen. Resultaterne publiceredes 1924 i en monografi (Jensen, Gjorslev (1924)). I 1988 dukkede en hidtil ukendt gengivelse af Gjorslev op i Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig. Tegningen fra o. 1670 viser forsvundne elementer som bl.a. tårnets krenelerede platform, korsarmenes kamtakkede og blændingsprydede gavle samt en polygonal kapeludbygning. I 1989 forestod Johannes Hertz nye undersøgelser og påviste bl.a. dette kapel arkæologisk.

In 1914 and the following years Chr. Axel Jensen, The national Museum, conducted buildings archaeological research and minor excavations in the yard. His studies were published in 1924 as a monograph (Jensen, Gjorslev (1924)). In 1988 an unknown drawing of the castle was found in the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum, Braunschweig. The drawing from c. 1670 depicts destroyed details such as the crenellated platform of the tower, the crowstepped gables of the transepts and a polygonal chapel. In 1989 Johannes Hertz carried out new surveys and uncovered the remains of e.g. the chapel.