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Gurre

Geschichte:

Borgen Gurre omtales første gang i skriftlige kilder 1361, da kong Valdemar Atterdag (1340-75) fik pavelig stadfæstelse på oprettelsen af et kapel på sin fæstning Gurre, men hvornår borgen er anlagt vides ikke. Der er foreslået dateringer fra 1100-tallets anden del og frem til 1300-tallets begyndelse. Gurre fungerede som kongelig hovedlensborg, og Gurre slotslen bestod o. 1400 af herrederne Lynge, Strø og Jørlunde. Såvel Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) som Erik af Pommern (1397-1439) opholdt sig ofte på Gurre, der i 1430’erne fungerede som møntsted. Efter anlæggelsen af Krogen ved Helsingør o. 1400 overgik en del af Gurre len efterhånden hertil, og Gurre mistede sin status som hovedlensborg. I 1534 bortmageskiftede kronen Gurre slot og len til biskop Joachim Rønnow, og en synsforretning i den anledning vidner om bygningernes fremskredne forfald. Efter Gurres tilbagevenden til kronen 1535 opgav man at vedligeholde bygningerne, og ruinen benyttedes de følgende århundreder som stenbrud.

The castle of Gurre is mentioned in written sources 1361 when King Valdemar Atterdag received papal assent of a chapel at his castle Gurre, but the date of the founding of the castle itself is unknown. Datings covering the period from the second half of the 12th century to the beginning of the 14th century have been suggested. Gurre functioned as the administrative centre of the royal main fief of Gurre which around 1400 included the districts or shires (herreds) of Lynge, Strø and Jørlunde. Both Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) and Eric of Pomerania (1397-1439) often stayed at Gurre, which also served as a Mint in the 1430s. After the founding of the castle Krogen at Elsinore around 1400 shires formerly belonging to Gurre gradually passed to Krogen, and Gurre lost its position as a main royal fief. By exchange of property in 1534 bishop Joachim Rønnow got hold of Gurre which at that time was in a state of decay. After the return of Gurre to the Crown in 1535 the castle dilapidated. In the centuries to follow the castle ruins were used as a quarry. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Den ældste del af borgen er centraltårnet, der almindeligvis dateres til perioden 1150-1250 men også kan være yngre. Fragmenter af riffelhuggede tegl og en romansk sandstenskapitæl støtter en tidlig datering, men der er i øvrigt ikke 1100-talsfund i genstandsmaterialet, der overvejende stammer fra 13-1400-tallet. Adgangen til tårnbanken er muligvis foregået fra øst, hvor der er spor efter tre brostolper orienteret efter tårnet. Disse har været indbygget i den senere ringmur. Der er dog ikke fundet spor af broen. Anlægget blev om- og udbygget betydeligt under Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) i midten af 1300-tallet. Borgbanken blev udvidet, og centraltårnet blev omgivet af en ringmur med hjørnetårne, og hovedadgangen forlagdes senere til sydsiden. Ved samme tid udførtes vældige anlægsarbejder på forborgsområdet, der bestod af en række kunstigt anlagte banker forbundet af broer. En bro i forborgsområdet vest for centraltårnet er dendrokronologisk dateret til 1365. Af de mindst 7 bygninger, der med sikkerhed er påvist på forborgsområdet, kan den nordøstligste dateres dendrokronologisk til 1363. Denne bygning er sammenbygget med en ældre bygning fra 1300-tallet, og en smedie øst for hovedborgen var ligeledes i brug i 1300-tallet. De øvrige bygninger er ikke dateret. En kirketomt sydøst for borgen menes at være det kapel, der stiftedes 1361.

The oldest part of the castle is the keep which by tradition is dated to the period between 1150 and 1250, but it might be younger. Fragments of fluted bricks and a capital in Romanesque style support an early date, but none of the many finds from the area date from the 12th century. The artefacts primarily date from the 14th and 15th centuries. Access to the castle mound was probably from the east, where 3 posts most likely from a bridge have been incorporated in the later curtain wall. Traces of the bridge itself have however not been found. The castle was rebuilt and considerably enlarged by Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) in the middle of the 14th century. The castle mound was made bigger, and a curtain wall with corner towers was built around the keep. The main access to the castle was later moved to the south. The bailey area which held a number of artificially built islands connected by wooden bridges was enlarged and buildings were erected. A bridge in the bailey area to the west of the main castle is dendrochronologically dated to 1365. Of the at least 7 buildings documented in the bailey area the northeastern house is dendrochronologically dated to 1363. It was built together with an older 14th century house and a smithy to the east of the main castle was also in use in the 14th century. The other buildings are undated. A church site to the southeast of the castle is traditionally identified with the castle chapel which was instituted in 1361. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Ruinen af Gurre er stedvist bevaret i op til 2-5 meters højde. Den ældste del, centraltårnet, blev anlagt på en naturlig banke i et sumpet område mellem Store Gurre Sø (Slotssøen) og Lille Gurre Sø (nu tørlagt). Af tårnet (15 x 11,5 m) er bevaret kælderstokværket i kampesten i op til ca. 2,6 meters højde med ca. 2 m tykke mure. Tårnets øvre har været opført i tegl. Tårnkælderen har været opdelt I to rum; et større mod (7,7 x 8 m) vest og et mindre (2,5 x 8 m) mod øst. Det mindste rum blev senere opdelt i to. I det store vestre rum findes en kampestenssat brønd samt spor efter en trappenedgang. Der er ikke spor efter døre og vinduer, og stokværket har sandsynligvis været benyttet som magasin. Et kraftigt sekundært fremspring (ca. 2,8 x 2,6 m) udvendigt på tårnets sydside er sandsynligvis et trappefundament. Adgangen til tårnbanken er muligvis foregået fra øst, hvor der er spor efter tre brostolper orienteret efter tårnet. Disse er blevet indbygget i den senere ringmur (ca. 37 x 42 m), der efter en udvidelse af den oprindelige banke ved 1300-tallets midte opførtes omkring centraltårnet. Afstanden mellem ringmur og centraltårn er ca. 11 m. Ringmuren er opført i teglsten med fire fremspringende hjørnetårne (ca. 9 x 9 m) og har været forsynet med en træbygget vægtergang med bærende stolper på syldsten langs murens inderside. I den østre ringmur ses spor efter de ovennævnte mulige brostolper, og fremspring midt for den søndre og nordre ringmur rummer hver to snævre trapper i murtykkelsen med udgang til terrænet udenfor ringmuren. Det søndre fremspring er forstærket formentlig i forbindelse med etableringen af en port og forlægning af hovedadgangsvejen hertil; der er mod syd fundet stolper fra en bro. Tre af ringmurens hjørnetårne har været udstyret med hemmeligheder med murede faldskakter, mens det sydvestlige hjørnetårn har fungeret som vandcisterne med endnu bevaret overløbskanal. Det omgivende forborgsområde, der synes at have omfattet et areal på ca. 600 x 400 m med hovedborgen i centrum, har bestået af en række kunstige banker opbygget af pilotering, tømmer og opfyld. Her er der påvist mindst 7 bygninger og mod nord rester af et kampestensfundament muligvis fra en ydre ringmur. Ca. 50 m nordøst for hovedborgen er fundet rester af tre teglstensbygninger. Mod øst en bygning (17 x 10 m) sandsynligvis i flere stokværk, der er foreslået som administrationsbygning, lensmandsbolig og gæstehus. Tømmer i fundamentet er dendrokronologisk dateret til 1363. Mod vest var huset bygget op til en ældre, meget stor treskibet bygning (48 x 15,5 m), der også dateres til 1300-tallet. Rester af kakkelovn, gulve og faste vægbænke antyder, at bygningen har rummet både beboelse, opbevaring og arbejdsrum. Et tredje teglstenshus (ca. 15,5 x 11 m) med uvis funktion og datering er fundet ca. 10 m vest for det treskibede hus. Ca. 19 m øst for hovedborgen er fundet en ca. 5 m bred bygning, der har fungeret som smedje i 1300-tallet, mens funktionen af de to bygninger, der er påvist ca. 50 m syd for hovedborgen er uklar. Her lå et teglstenshus (21,5 x 8,5 m) opdelt i 3 rum og nord herfor en bygning af uvis størrelse. Ca. 300 m sydøst for borgen er bevaret fundamenter fra en traditionel romansk kirkebygning af tegl bestående af skib og smallere kor med ret østafslutning. Senere er tilbygget sakristi og våbenhus mod nord samt vesttårn. Der er fundet begravelser i bygningen. Kirken formodes at være Gurre landsbys sognekirke, der 1361 blev borgens kapel indviet til St. Jakob. I baileyområdet er yderligere fundet rester af flere småhuse og murforløb.

The remains of Gurre castle partially rise to a height of 2 to 5 meters. The oldest part, the keep, was built on a natural ridge in the swampy area between Lake Store Gurre (The Castlelake) and Lake Lille Gurre (now drained). The walls of the ground floor of the keep (15 x 11.5 m) are preserved to a height of about 2,6 meters. They are about 2 meters wide and built of stone while the uncertain number of upper storeys was brick built. The ground floor was divided in two rooms: A larger room (7.7 x 8 m) to the west and a smaller room (2.5 x 8 m) to the east. The smaller room was later separated into two rooms. The larger room holds a well and the remains of a staircase. There are no traces of doors and windows and the floor probably served as storeroom. On the outside of the south wall a turret for a staircase (ca. 2.8 x 2.6 m) was later added. Access to the tower seems to have been from the east where the later curtain wall has marks from three posts pointing towards the tower. They were perhaps part of a wooden bridge but later incorporated in the curtain wall. After an enlargement of the natural castle mound the curtain wall (ca. 37 x 42 m) was built around the keep. The distance between the curtain and the keep is about 11 meters. The curtain wall was built in tile and had a projecting tower (c. 9 x 9 m) in each corner and a wooden gallery. In the eastern curtain wall traces of the bridge mentioned above are seen while access was also provided through narrow twin staircases in the south and north curtain walls. The section of the curtain between the southern staircases was later reinforced, probably due to the construction of a gate and the relocation of the main access. Posts from a bridge have been found in the area to the south. The southwest corner tower holds a cistern while the three other towers have draining channels from privies. The surrounding bailey, which seems to have covered an area of about 600 x 400 meters with the main castle in the centre, was made of a number of artificial islets created by infilling (clay, sand, gravel) held in place by timber, piling and posts. At least seven buildings have been substantiated in the bailey area and to the north foundations of what might be an outer curtain wall have been found. C. 50 meters to the northeast of the main castle remains of three large buildings have been uncovered. The eastern house was a brick building (17 x 10 m) probably holding several storeys. It might have been used for administration as well as accommodation for the bailiff and prominent guests. Timber in the foundations of the house has been dendrochronologically dated to 1363. Adjacent to the west side of this building was another slightly older 14th century, lintel-built three-aisled house (48 x 15.5 m). Remains of a stove, different floors and wall benches indicate, that this very large building served as partly dwelling, partly storeroom and partly working area. A third brick house (c. 15.5 x 11 m) with uncertain date and function has been located c. 10 meters to the west of the three-aisled building. Approximately 19 meters to the east of the main castle a 14th century smithy was found. In contrast the purpose and date of two brick buildings c. 50 meters to the south of the main castle is unclear. One (21.5 x 8.5 m) was divided into three rooms, while the remains of another house of unknown size were found a few meters to the north. C. 300 meters to the southeast of the main castle the foundations of a traditional Danish parish church are seen (nave and choir with sacristy, porch and west tower as later additions). Burials have been found at the site which was probably the parish church of Gurre until it became attached to the castle during the great rebuilding and enlargement of the mid 14th century. Furthermore, remains of several minor houses and walls have been recorded in the bailey area. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Private udgravninger fra 1817 og igen i 1830’erne ved de daværende ejere. Udgravnings- og restaureringsarbejder ved Nationalmuseet i 1890’erne samt 1902, 1921 (Chr. Axel Jensen), 1928-32 (C.M. Smidt), 1948 (genudgravning af kirkeruinen ved Tage E. Christiansen), 1955, 1965 og 1968 (Hans Stiesdal) og 1972. Fra 1986 restaureringsarbejder ved Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. I 2000 fund af vejbelægninger mv. (Nordsjællands Folkemuseum og Helsingør Bymuseum). I 2001-05 udgravninger i forborgsterrænet ved Nationalmuseet (Vivian Etting og Charlotte Boje Andersen), Helsingør Bymuseum (Lone Hvass) samt Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. Der foreligger på Nationalmuseet et stort og righoldigt fundmateriale fra de mange undersøgelser på stedet.

Private excavations conducted by the owners of the site from 1817 and again during the 1830s. Various restoration works and excavations by The National Museum in the 1890s, in 1902, 1921 (Chr. Axel Jensen), 1928-32 (C.M. Smidt), 1948 (re-excavation of the church site by Tage E. Christiansen), 1955, 1965 and 1968 (Hans Stiesdal) and 1972. From 1986 restoration works were conducted by Skov- og Naturstyrelsen. In 2000 surveys were made in the bailey area (Nordsjællands Folkemuseum and Helsingør Bymuseum) followed in 2001-05 by further excavations (The National Museum/Vivian Etting and Charlotte Boje Andersen, Helsingør Bymuseum/Lone Hvass and Skov- og Naturstyrelsen). The many excavations at the site have provided a comprehensive amount of artefacts which is stored at The National Museum.