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Krogen

Geschichte:

Krogen (det senere Kronborg) afløste o. 1400 et syd for Helsingør beliggende ældre kongeligt anlæg (Flynderborg), der var blevet ødelagt af lübeckerne mellem 1368 og 1373. I begyndelsen synes Krogen først of fremmest at have tjent militære formål. Borgen havde en strategisk nøgleposition ved Øresunds smalleste sted og kunne sammen med Helsingborg på den modsatte side af sundet beherske søfarten til og fra Østersøen. Samtidig havde Krogen en fordelagtig central placering i hele Kalmarunionens infrastruktur, og det 80 x 80 m store ringmursanlæg kunne huse talstærke tropper. Gennem omfattende byggearbejder i 1420’erne og 30’erne tilføjede Erik af Pommern (1397-1439) betydelige residentielle og repræsentative funktioner til borgen, og med den samtidige interesse i Helsingør synes han her at have ønsket at etablere et kongeligt centrum med en ny kongelig residens. At alle skibe, der passerede sundet, blev mødt af synet af Krogen havde givetvis stor symbolsk betydning. Kronen på værket var indførelsen af Øresundstolden, der fra 1429 til 1857 opkrævedes af alle fremmede skibe, der passerede Øresund. Fra Krogen administreredes også Krogen len. Borgen måtte overgive sig under Grevens Fejde, og gennem 1500-tallet mistede Krogen betydning som central kongelig bolig og fæstning. Med ombygningen til Kronborg, der iværksattes af Frederik II (1559-1588) i 1574 genoprettedes borgens status. Kronborg blev i 2000 optaget på UNESCO’s liste over verdenskulturarv.

Around 1400 Krogen (the later Kronborg) succeeded an older royal castle (Flynderborg) situated to the south of Elsinore. It was destroyed by forces of Lübeck between 1368 and 1373. At first Krogen seems to have been mostly of military importance. The castle had an important strategic position at the narrowest point of Øresund and together with the royal castle of Helsingborg on the opposite shore of the Sound the sea traffic passing to and from the Baltic could be controlled. Furthermore Krogen held a keyposition in the infrastructure of the Kalmar Union and from the castle measuring c. 80 × 80 metres troops could easily be shipped in any direction of the union. During the 1420’s and 1430’s considerably residential and representative functions were added to the castle by King Eric of Pomerania (1397-1439) who at the same time showed great interest in the town of Elsinore. The King seems to have wanted to create a centre with a new royal residence. Every ship entering Øresund was met by the sight of the castle which obviously had great symbolic value. The finishing touch was the introduction of the Sound Toll which from 1429 and until 1857 was exacted from all foreign vessels passing through the Sound. Krogen was also the administrative centre of a main royal fief. During the 16th century Krogen had losts its position as a central royal residence and fortification and the castle was forced to surrender a siege during the Counts Quarrel in the 1530s. The former status of the castle was reinstated by King Frederic II (1559-1588) who set out a great rebuilding in 1574. In 2000 UNESCO declared Kronborg as World Heritage. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Første byggeetape var den 14-15 m høje kvadratiske ringmur i tegl (80 x 80 m) med port mod nord og en gennemløbende tøndehvælvet vægtergang med nicher og skydeskår. Den søndre og vestre ringmur mod Helsingør var 4 m tyk, mens den østre og nordre ringmur var halvt så svær. De første påviste bygninger var lettere huse ved vestre ringmurs nordlige del og nordre ringmurs vestlige del. Porten befæstedes inden længe med et fremspringende porttårn, der stod i forbindelse med et trappehus på ringmurens inderside. Portårnet, der inkl. ringmurens tykkelse målte 13,3 x 13,3 m, var indrettet med portåbninger i siderne, hvilket antyder et vejforløb langs nordre ringmur mod havet. På et tidligt tidspunkt blev der desuden gennembrudt en udgang i østre ringmur mod stranden, og der opførtes sandsynligvis en flankemur i forbindelse hermed. I 1420’erne var tre store teglstensbygninger i borggårdens frie hjørner under opførelse; i sydvesthjørnet en stor salsbygning, i sydøsthjørnet et kapel og i nordøsthjørnet kongens private bolig. Via ringmurens vægtergang var der forbindelse mellem alle tre fløje. Samtidig etableredes en åben skyttegang øverst på den østre ringmur. Nordfløjen blev påbegyndt efter opførelsen af porttårnets trappehus og må på baggrund af kalkmalerier formodes at være færdigbygget inden udgangen af 1420’erne. På baggrund af syd- og vestfløjens ligheder med nordfløjen i byggeteknik og detaljer samt genstandsfund i byggelagene, især mønter, samt stratigrafiske iagttagelser må alle tre fløje formodes at have været under opførelse i 1420’erne. Gennem middelalderen foretoges ingen grundlæggende ombygninger af Krogen. Forskellige bindingsværksbygninger afløste hinanden i borggården og i fløjenes indre foretoges mindre ændringer, men først i slutningen af 1550’erne påbegyndtes en egentlig modernisering. Denne synes udelukkende at have omfattet militære indretninger såsom bastioner, og omfattende ændringer af bygningerne blev først iværksat i 1574.

The first building stage includes the brick built square curtain wall (80 x 80 m, 14-15 m high) with a gate facing north and a barrel vaulted gallery with loopholes and niches circling the curtain. The southern and western walls facing Elsinore were almost 4 metres thick whereas the northern and eastern walls facing the sea were about two metres thick. Lighter buildings were situated in the northwest corner of the courtyard. Before long a projecting gate tower was added. Access to the upper storeys of the tower was obtained from the gallery and from a staircase built inside the courtyard. Including the part of the curtain wall which it covered the tower measured 13.3 x 13.3 metres. It had gates in both its western and eastern wall which indicates that a passageway continued along the northern curtain wall towards the sea. At a fairly early stage a small gate was established in the eastern curtain wall facing the sea and probably a flanking wall. In the 1420s three large brick building were constructed in the free corners of the courtyard; a hall in the southwest corner, a chapel in the southeast corner and the royal residence in the northeast corner. Using the vaulted gallery it was possible to circle the entire curtain wall and enter all three buildings without crossing the courtyard. At the same time an open parapet was constructed on the eastern curtain wall. The north wing was built after the staircase to the gatetower and according to mural paintings the house must have been completed before 1430. The west and south wings are very similar to the north wing regarding both technical and architectural features and finds from the construction deposits as well as stratigraphical observations suggest that all three buildings were under construction during the 1420s. Throughout the Middle Ages no major changes of the general layout were carried out. Various arrangements of smaller timber-framed buildings succeeded each other in the courtyard and some alterations of the interior design of the brick buildings were made but the first steps towards a proper renovation were not taken until the late 1550s. This resulted in improvements of the military conditions such as bastions but a rebuilding of the medieval houses was not commenced until 1574. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Det firefløjede renæssanceslot Kronborg (opført 1574-1588) rummer betydelige rester af det middelalderlige Krogen. Slottets ydermure består for en stor dels vedkommende af den middelalderlige ringmur, der blev beklædt med sandsten under renæssanceombygningen. Rester af de tre teglstensbygninger langs ringmurens inderside er ligeledes bevaret i slottets nuværende fløje, mens det fremspringende porttårn er udgravet. Rester af porttårnets trappehus på ringmurens inderside kan ses i den nuværende nordfløj. Den middelalderlige vestfløj (40 × 15 m) indeholdt over en hvælvet kælder mindst to stokværk, hvoraf hovedstokværket rummede borgens store sal. Salen var overhvælvet med 6 fag stjernehvælv og store spidsbuede vinduer mod borggården. Ved husets nordgavl fandtes et trappehus, der gav adgang til alle stokværk samt til ringmurens vægtergang. Betydelige rester af vestfløjen er bevaret i den nuværende fløj, og i slutningen af 1920’erne blev salens sydlige del genopført på baggrund af bevarede rester af vinduer og hvælv. Af sydfløjen (30 × 18 m), der rummede mindst to stokværk, er kun vestgavlen samt et mindre parti af den oprindelige nordmur bevaret, mens en mindre del af nordmuren er udgravet i borggården. Ud for hovedstokværket er et stort spidsbuet vindue bevaret centralt i gavlen (kapellet), der også har spor efter et trappehus i lighed med vestfløjens. Nordfløjen (29 × 11 m), der rummede den private kongelige bolig, indeholdt fire stokværk over en hvælvet kælder. Bygningen opførtes i tilknytning til porttårnets allerede eksisterende trappehus, der således også gav adgang til nordfløjens øvre stokværk. I det øverste stokværks ydermure, der rejste sig over ringmuren, indrettedes en spidsbuet vægtergang, hvorfra der gennem en åbning i husets sydfacade var adgang til en åben skyttegang på den østre ringmur. Nordfløjens første stokværk var opdelt i et større vente- eller modtagelsesrum samt et mindre audienskammer, der var udstyret med et cirkulært dobbeltsmiget vindue (2,3 m i diameter) mod borggården. Den indvendige smig blev i 1420’erne dekoreret med 19 kalkmalede våbenskjolde centreret omkring ”Arma Christi”. Kristi våben flankeres af Erik af Pommerns (1397-1439) og dronning Philippas (1406-1430), der er omgivet af mindre våbener for bisper og højtstående stormænd. Våbenfrisen angiver muligvis medlemmer af den fyrstelige orden, som Erik af Pommern indstiftede senest 1413, og det er således en mulighed, at kongens kammer på Krogen også fungerede som mødesal for dette eksklusive selskab.

Considerable remains of Krogen are preserved within the walls of the present four-winged renaissance castle Kronborg (built 1574-1588). The outside walls of Kronborg which were completely faced with sandstone in the 1580s largely consist of the medieval brick curtain wall and parts of the three medieval brick houses are preserved in the castle as well. Nothing is visible above ground of the medieval gate tower which has been excavated but remains of its staircase inside the courtyard are seen in the present north wing. The medieval west wing (40 x1 5 m) had at least two floors above the basement and the Great Hall covered its main floor. It consisted of 6 bays of stellar vaults with large pointed windows towards the court yard. A staircase at the northern end of the house provided access to all floors including the gallery of the curtain wall. Considerable remains of the house are preserved in the standing building and in the 1920s the southern section of the hall was re-established on the basis of remains of vaulting and windows. Of the entire south wing (30 x 18 m) which held at least two floors only the western house end and a small part of the original north wall have survived. An additional section of the north wall has been excavated in the courtyard. A large pointed window on the main floor is preserved at the centre of the gable end of the house (the chapel) which also shows traces of a staircase similar to the one at the west wing. The north wing (29 x 11 m) which served as the royal residence held four floors above basement. It was connected to the already existing staircase of the gate tower which also provided access to the upper floors of the north wing. In the outside walls of the uppermost floor which rose above the curtain wall a vaulted gallery was established. From here a door in the south wall of the house led to an open parapet crowning the eastern curtain wall. The main floor was divided in a smaller audience chamber and a larger reception- or waiting room. The audience chamber had a circular double splayed window (2.3 m in diameter) originally facing the court yard. In the 1420s the splay was decorated with murals of 19 coats-of-arms around the ”Arma Christi”. The ensign of Christ is flanked by those of King Eric of Pomerania (1397-1439) and Queen Philippa (1406-1430). The royal coats-of-arms are surrounded by those of bishops and magnates. The frieze of arms might represent members of the princely order which was instituted by the King in 1413 at the latest and the chamber thus might also have served as assembly hall for this order. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Omfattende restaurering i 1920’erne og 1930’erne under ledelse af Johannes Magdahl Nielsen, hvorved det overraskende omfang af bevaret middelalderligt murværk i renæssanceslottet blev klarlagt. Talrige mindre udgravninger ved Nationalmuseet (Harald Langberg) i 1970’erne og 1980’erne. Fra 1998-2002 flere mindre udgravninger ved Nordsjællandsk Folkemuseum, og fra 2003 og frem flere undersøgelser ved Nationalmuseet i de ydre forsvarsværker. I 2004-2005 bygningsarkæologiske undersøgelser ved Heidi Maria Møller Nielsen (Aarhus Universitet).

During the 1920s and 1930s a thorough restoration took place. It was conducted by Johannes Magdahl Nielsen who discovered the surprising quantity of medieval brickwork in the renaissance castle. Numerous smaller excavations were carried out by the National Museum of Denmark (Harald Langberg) during the 1970s and 1980. From 1998 to 2002 several smaller excavations were done by Nordsjællands Folkemuseum and from 2003 onwards The National Museum has carried out archaeological surveys in the bastions and outer defensive areas. In 2004-2005 buildings archaeological research was carried out by Heidi Maria Møller Nielsen (University of Aarhus).