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Korsør

Geschichte:

Korsør omtales første gang 1341 af Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) som en af kronens borge på Sjælland. Omkring 1345 overtog han borgen, der havde været besat af holstenerne. Borgen ved Korsør fungerede som hovedlensborg for Korsør len, der bestod af Flakkebjerg og Slagelse herreder. Den nærliggende borg Tårnborg havde tidligere spillet denne rolle, men den nedlagdes i 1420’erne. Muligvis blev byggematerialer fra Tårnborg genanvendt på Korsør. Borgen i Korsør var strategisk placeret ved det vigtigste overfartssted over Storebælt til Fyn, og kongerne opholdt sig hyppigt på stedet. Bortset fra det endnu bevarede tårn blev de centrale borgbygninger nedrevet o. 1800 og området omdannedes til Korsør Søbatteri, der blev nedlagt 1857.

Korsør is mentioned by King Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) for the first time in 1341 as one of the royal castles on Zealand. Around 1345 he recaptured the castle which had been occupied by the Holsteiners. It served as the administrative centre of a main royal fief consisting of Flakkebjerg and Slagelse herred’s. This position was taken over from the nearby castle of Tårnborg which was abandoned in the 1420s.Possibly building material from Tårnborg was reused at Korsør. The castle of Korsør was strategically situated at the most important ferry station regarding the crossing of the Great Belt to Funen thus it was often visited by the Kings. Apart from the still preserved tower the main castle buildings were demolished around 1800 and the area converted into Korsør Seabattery which was abandoned in 1857. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Det bevarede hovedtårn i Korsør rummer mindst to byggefaser. De fire nedre stokværk dateres traditionelt til 1300-tallet, mens de foreslåede dateringer af tårnets forstærkning og forhøjelse spænder fra 1400-tallets til 1500-tallets begyndelse. Bortset fra tårnet er borgens middelalderlige bygninger ukendte. Et kapel omtales i skriftlige kilder 1361.

The still standing main tower of the castle in Korsør show at least two medieval building phases. The four lower storeys are traditionally dated to the 14th century while the suggested dates of the reinforcement and heightening of the tower cover the period from the early 15th century to the early 16th century. Besides the tower the buildings of the medieval castle are unknown. Written sources mention a chapel in 1361. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Borgen i Korsør blev nedrevet I 1800-tallets begyndelse, men et stort tårn, formentlig borgens hovedtårn, er bevaret. I dag er tårnet 23 m højt og omfatter 8 stokværk, der alle har haft flade trælofter og små lysåbninger. Det er opført af teglsten og måler 8,9 x 8,9 m med ca. 2,5 tykke mure. Tårnets første byggefase omfatter kælderen og de næste tre etager. Adgangsdøren med en udvendig svale var placeret i 2. stokværk; forbindelsen mellem stokværkene foregik ad indvendige stiger. En dør i 3. stokværk er tolket som adgang til en fremspringende hemmelighed, formentlig en bjælkebåren lettere konstruktion. Det første tårns krenelering kan endnu spores i murværket. Senere blev tårnet forhøjet sandsynligvis med to stokværk, og samtidig foretoges en indvendig forstærkning af murene. Skalmuringen resulterede i, at indgangsdøren i 2. stokværk flyttedes til en anden mur, en hjørnekamin etableredes, og døren i 3. stokværk blev sløjfet. Den øvre forsvarsplatform blev forhøjet til et regulært 7. stokværk sandsynligvis i 1500-tallet, mens det øverste stokværk og den nuværende tagkonstruktion stammer fra nyere tid. Det prunkløse tårn synes først og fremmest at have tjent forsvarsmæssige formål. Udgravninger på stedet har ikke afdækket middelalderlige bygningsrester i større omfang men har verificeret den situation, der gengives på opmålinger fra 1700-tallet. Da havde det centrale borganlæg en rektangulær form og bestod af fløje mod øst og vest (21,25 x 9,12 m) forbundet af en spærremur i syd samt tårn og port i nord. De to fløjes alder er ukendt, men de var sandsynligvis eftermiddelalderlige. På borgområdet er endnu bevaret tre bygninger fra 16-1700-tallet.

The castle in Korsør was pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century but a great tower is still standing. It was probably the main feature of the castle. Today the tower has eight storeys and reaches a height of about 23 metres. It is built of bricks on a quadrangular plan of 8.9 x 8.9 metres and had flat wooden ceilings and small light slits on every floor. The walls are about 2.5 metres wide. The first building phase comprises the basement and the three lower storeys. Access to the tower was via an outside gallery through a doorway in the second storey, with ladders connecting the storeys inside. A door on the third floor has been interpreted as leading to an outdoor privy which presumably was a lighter construction supported by beams. The battlements of this first tower can still be traced in the brickwork. Later the tower was heightened probably by two storeys and new battlements at the top. At the same time the walls were reinforced from the inside. This resulted in some changes; the entrance on the second floor was moved to another wall and a fireplace was constructed and the door on the third floor was bricked up. The top platform was heightened into a regular storey probably in the 16th century. The present top floor and the roof are of early modern date. The rather unadorned Korsør tower seems to have been used primarily for defence. Excavations at the site have not uncovered substantial remains of medieval buildings but they have confirmed the situation depicted on 18th century surveys of the castle. At that time the main castle was a rectangular structure consisting of buildings to the east and west (21.25 x 9.12 m), a barrier wall to the south and the tower and gate to the north. The date of the two buildings is unknown but most probably post medieval. Three of the post medieval outer buildings from the 17-18th centuries are still preserved. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Korsørtårnet blev undersøgt af Nationalmuseet o. 1900 (Aage Mathiesen) og igen i forbindelse med en udgravning 1932 (Aage Roussell). Siden har Charlotte Haas studeret tårnet, og Arkæologisk Museum Korsør foretog flere udgravninger i 1980érne.

Surveys of the Korsør tower was conducted by the National Museum of Denmark around 1900 (Aage Mathiesen) and in relation an excavation in 1932 (Aage Roussell). Later Charlotte Haas has investigated the tower (Haas, Korsør (1990)) and Arkæologisk Museum Korsør has carried out more excavation during the 1980s.