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Nyborg

Geschichte:

Nyborg Slot omtales første gang 1193, da Knud VI (1182-1202) holdt rigsforsamling på stedet. Forskellige bygherrer er blevet foreslået, men borgen skal efter alt at dømme betragtes som en kongelig grundlæggelse. Nyborg var strategisk placeret ved det vigtigste overfartssted til Sjælland, og Kongerne opholdt sig ofte på borgen. Almindeligvis kædes Nyborg sammen med Tårnborg på Sjælland og borgen på Sprogø, som tilsammen har udgjort en slags forsvarskæde tværs over Storebælt. Nyborg fungerede som administrativt centrum i et hovedlen bestående af Gudme og Vindinge herreder. Ydermere var Nyborg mødested for Danehoffet, kongen, bispernes og stormændenes rigsforsamling. Nyborgs centrale placering gjorde det til et naturligt samlingssted for Danehoffet, der afholdtes årligt til St. Hans den 24. juni. Pligten til at indkalde til Danehof blev understreget i love og håndfæstninger siden hoffets oprettelse i 1282. Nyborg fastholdt positionen som det foretrukne mødested for Danehoffet, der afholdtes for sidste gang 1413. I 1520’erne blev Frederik I (1523-1533) opfordret til at gøre Nyborg til residensstad, hvilket dog aldrig blev effektueret.

The castle of Nyborg is mentioned for the first time in 1193 when King Knud VI (1182-1202) held a general assembly at the site. More founders have been suggested but all considered the castle was in all probability built by the King. The royal castle of Nyborg was strategically situated at the most important ferry station regarding the crossing of the Great Belt to Zealand thus it was often visited by the Kings. Traditionally Nyborg is associated with the castles of Tårnborg on Zealand and the castle on Sprogø. Together the three castles formed a defensive line across the Great Belt. Nyborg served as the administrative centre of a main royal fief consisting of Gudme and Vindinge herred’s. Furthermore, the castle of Nyborg was the regular meeting place for the Danehof, a general assembly reserved for the king, the bishops and the magnates. The location of Nyborg in the middle of the kingdom made it an obvious site for the Danehof which was held each year on St John’s day, 24th June. The obligation to summon the assembly was stressed in coronation charters and laws since its institution in 1282. The castle maintained its role as the primary setting of the Danehof until the last assembly in 1413. In the 1520s King Frederik I (1523-1533) was urged to make Nyborg the residential centre of the Kingdom which however never happened. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Det indtil videre ældste kendte bygningselement i Nyborg Slot er den trapezoide teglstensbyggede ringmur, der traditionelt regnes for opført I 1200-tallets første del. I samme periode tilkom ved den vestre ringmur palatiet, der er bevaret i den midterste del af den stående vestfløj. Det centralt i østre ringmur placerede store tårn, hvis underdel er bevaret, opførtes formentlig i 1300-tallet. Omkring 1400 blev ringmuren forhøjet og palatiet udvidet (dendrokronologiske dateringer). Den yngste middelalderlige byggefase omfatter endnu en ombygning og modernisering af palatiet i 1520’erne (dendrokronologiske dateringer). De forskellige faser i konstruktionerne omkring adgangsforholdene ved østre ringmur er endnu ikke sikkert dateret. Den første store eftermiddelalderlige byggeperiode falder i 1550’erne.

For now the oldest known feature of Nyborg Castle is the brick curtain wall which traditionally is regarded as built in the first half of the 13th century. In the same period a palace which is preserved in the present building was added along the western curtain. The great tower in the middle of the east curtain wall was probably built in the 14th century; its lower storeys are still standing. Around 1400 the curtain was heightened and the palace was enlarged (dendrochronological dates). The last medieval building period was a rebuilt and modernization of the palace during the 1520s (dendrochronological dates). The successive structures related to the castle gate in the east curtain wall are not yet properly dated. The first post medieval building period was the 1550s. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Nyborg ligger nu omgivet af vandgrave men blev oprindeligt anlagt på en holm inderst i Nyborg Fjord. Borgen bestod i 1200-tallet af et trapezformet teglbygget ringmursanlæg med sidelængder på ca. 55-70 m, trekvartrunde hjørnetårne og halvrunde flankeringstårne. Adgangen til borgen foregik fra øst i tilknytning til endnu kun sporadisk kendte konstruktioner. Op mod den vestre ringmur (1,6 m bred) opførtes en fornem salsbygning (ca. 28 x 10,9 m) i to stokværk, et palatium, der indgår i den stående bygning. I gårdfacaden er bevaret et blændet rundbuet, smiget vindue i 2. stokværk og en rundbuet dør til 1. stokværk. Adgangen til borgen foregik senere gennem en port i østre ringmur umiddelbart syd for et kraftigt tårn, hvoraf underdelen endnu er bevaret. Tårnet (14,2 x 13,2 m, med 3,8 m tykke mure) var opført centralt i den østre ringmur og tværs over denne. To stokværk er bevaret, og i begge sider af det 2. stokværk ses døre (senere omdannet ti vinduer) til ringmurens vægtergang. Ringmuren og den lidt yngre salsbygning dateres almindeligvis til 1200-tallets første halvdel, mens østtårnet er en senere tilføjelse, på typologisk baggrund formentlig fra 1300-tallet. Kort efter 1400 blev salsbygningen kraftigt udvidet og sandsynligvis blev også ringmuren forhøjet. Først forhøjedes salsbygningen med et stokværk til de nuværende tre etager, og herefter forlængedes bygningen mod syd, så den sluttede sig til den søndre ringmur. Tømmeret til byggeriet blev fældet i vinteren 1400/1401. Yderligere foretoges forskellige ændringer i den indvendige indretning og ruminddeling. I det 3. stokværk indrettedes bl.a. en stor sal, der kunne anvendes til Danehofferne. I den senere middelalder foretoges også en ombygning af adgangsforholdene syd for det store tårn; et barbican lignende arrangement med et cirkulært tårn synes at være afløst af en fremspringende portbygning. Vestfløjen ombyggedes if. dendrokronologiske dateringer igen i 1520’erne, da der indsattes store rundbuede vinduer og foretoges indvendige ændringer, bl.a. flytning af etageskel. Samtidig fik flere rum en kalkmalet vægudsmykning med geometriske mønstre. Næste store ombygning af Nyborg slot skete ved 1500-tallets midte, dels med henblik på tilpasning til kanoner, dels en opgradering af boligforholdene. Bl.a. blev vestfløjen forlænget ud til ringmuren i nord, og samtidig blev dele af vestre og nordre ringmur forstærket med skalmuring både på inder- og yderside til ca. 3 m tykkelse, hvori der etableredes en vægtergang. I vestfløjens indre skete omfattende ændringer, bl.a. indrettedes en ny stor sal i 2. stokværk. Efter alt at dømme udviklede borgen sig gennem senmiddelalderen til et firefløjet anlæg, til dels bestående af lettere bygninger, men om udformningen af middelalderlige bygninger udover den bevarede vestfløj vides intet sikkert. Den ældste kendte gengivelse af Nyborg Slot fra 1659 viser et firefløjet renæssanceslot med tårne og spir.

Today Nyborg is surrounded by moats but it was originally situated on an islet in Nyborg Fjord. In the 13th century the castle consisted of a brick built quadrangular curtain with walls of about 55-70 metres. It had semicircular flanking towers and three quarters circular corner towers. Access to the castle was from the east but so far the original structures around the entrance are sporadically known. A palace was built against the western curtain (c. 1.6 m thick). It measured c. 28 x 10.9 metres and had two storeys which are preserved in the standing building. In the wall facing the court yard a moulded round arched door to the lower storey (presently basement) and a bricked up round arched splayed window on the second floor are seen. Access to the castle was later through a gate in the eastern curtain wall just to the south of a strong tower. The lower storeys of this quadrangular tower (14.2 x 13.2 m, 3.8 m thick walls) are still preserved.
It was built across the old curtain wall and had at least two upper storeys. On the second storey doors led to the gallery on top of the curtain wall; later they were transformed into windows. Traditionally the curtain wall and the slightly younger palace are dated to the first half of the 13th century. The east tower is a later addition which on a typological basis can be dated to the 14th century. Shortly after 1400 the palacae was considerably enlarged and probably the curtain wall was heightened. Firstly the palace was raised by one storey and then extended to the south against the southern curtain. The building timber is dendrochronologically dated to the winter of 1400/1401. Furthermore changes of the interior design were carried out. Amongst others a great hall was established on the new third floor. It was probably used for the Danehof assemblies. In the later Middle ages the gate was also rebuilt; a barbican-like arrangement with an advanced circular tower seems to have been succeeded by a projecting quadrangular gate house.
According to dendrochronological dates the palace was rebuilt once again during the 1520s when big round arched windows succeeded older and smaller ones and the floor levels were changed. At the same time several rooms were decorated with murals of geometrical patterns. The next building period of Nyborg is post medieval. In the 1550s the castle was adapted to guns and the residential quarters were upgraded. Among others the palace was extended to the north against the northern curtain and at the same time parts of the western and northern curtain were reinforced both on the inside and the outside and a gallery was established in the now 3 metres wide curtains. In the west wing the interior design was changed, e.g. a great hall was established on the second floor. Presumably the castle evolved into a four-winged structure of partly lighter buildings during the late middle ages but the layout and structure of these buildings are apart from the preserved west wing unclear. The first known image of the castle which date from 1659 depicts a four-winged renaissance castle with spires and pinnacles. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Arkæologiske undersøgelser har fundet sted på Nyborg 1896 (Erik Schiødte), 1899 (P. Hauberg, Frederik Schiøtt, N.C. Hansen), 1900 (Aage Mathiesen) og i forbindelse med en omfattende restaurering i perioden 1917-1926 (Mogens Clemmensen), 1925-26 (Arne Nystrøm). Mindre undersøgelser er foretaget 1997 og 2002, 2006, 2007 (Nyborg og Omegns Museum), mens en omfattende bygningsarkæologisk undersøgelse af vestfløjen gennemførtes 1998-2000 (Erik Fisker, David Boehm-Enemark, Jan Ellekjær Rønne). I 2009 indledte Østfyns Museer et endnu pågående forskningsprojekt om Nyborg Slot, der inkluderer arkæologiske udgravninger.

Archaeological surveys have taken place at Nyborg in 1896 (Erik Schiødte), 1899 (P. Hauberg, Frederik Schiøtt, N.C. Hansen), 1900 (Aage Mathiesen) and in relation to a thorough restoration lasting from 1917 to 1926 (Mogens Clemmensen), 1925-26 (Arne Nystrøm). Smaller excavation were carried out in 1997 and 2002, 2006, 2007 (Nyborg og Omegns Museum), and from 1998 to 2000 the west wing was the object for buildings archaeological research (Erik Fisker, David Boehm-Enemark, Jan Ellekjær Rønne). In 2009 Østfyns Museer started an ongoing research project which also include archaeological surveys.