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Sønderborg

Geschichte:

Sønderborg Slot omtales første gang 1256 men regnes traditionelt for anlagt i 1100-tallets slutning eller o. 1200 som værn mod syd fra kommende angreb og som sikring af farvandet og overgangen fra fastlandet til Als. Med sin beliggenhed på Als, som ikke oprindeligt hørte til hertugdømmet Schleswig, var borgen et stridens æble mellem den danske konge og hertugen det meste af middelalderen. Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375), der på borgen blev gift med hertugens søster i 1340, kom i sine allersidste år i permanent i besiddelse af borgen, men efter kongens død tog holstenerne straks øen tilbage. Erik af Pommern (1396-1439) erobrede Als i 1410 men kunne ikke indtage Sønderborg, og flådeekspeditioner til øen i 1421 og 1430 slog fejl. I 1439 blev hertugen forlenet med hele Sønderjylland inkl. Als, der først kom tilbage til kronen 1460, da Slesvig og Holsten på mødrene side tilfaldt Christian af Oldenborg, der siden 1448 havde været konge af Danmark som Christian I (1448-1481). Hertugen forsøgte flere gange senere at tage Sønderborg, men i 1490 delte kong Hans (1481-1513) og broren hertug Frederik hertugdømmerne mellem sig, hvorefter Als tilhørte den kongelige del. Sønderborg len omfattede i 1400-tallet Als Sønder herred, Nybøl herred, halvøen Kegnæs og den sydlige del af Als Nørre herred svarende til det senere Egen herred. Den afsatte Christian II (1513-1523) sad fængslet på Sønderborg Slot fra 1532 til 1549.

Sønderborg castle is mentioned for the first time in written sources in 1256 but is commonly regarded as founded in the late 12th century or around 1200 as a defence against enemies from abroad, primarily from beyond the Baltic, and as a guard of the communication between Als and Jutland. Als was not originally part of the duchy of Schleswig and throughout the Middle Ages Sønderborg was an eternal apple of discord between the Danish King and the duke. In his last years King Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375), who in 1340 was married to the duke’s sister in Sønderborg, succeeded in getting permanent hold of the castle but after the death of the king it was once again captured by the Holsteiners. Eric of Pomerania conquered Als in 1410 but was unable to take Sønderborg and naval expeditions to the island in 1421 and 1430 were failures. In 1439 the duke was formally endowed with all of Southern Jutland including Als which did not return to the Crown until 1460 when King Christian I (1448-1481) inherited both Schleswig and Holstein. The duke tried to take Sønderborg back several times later but in 1490 King Hans (1481-1513) and his younger brother duke Frederic divided Schleswig and Holstein between them. Hereafter Als including Sønderborg belonged to the royal part of Schleswig and Holstein. In the 15th century the main royal fief of Sønderborg included Als Sønder, Nybøl and the southern part of Als Nørre herred’s in addition to the peninsula Kegnæs, the southern tip of Als. From 1532 to 1549 the dethroned Christian II (1513-1523) was imprisoned in Sønderborg. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

O. 1200 bestod Sønderborg angiveligt af et firesidet teglstenstårn (8 x 8 m, 1,3 m tykke mure), der senere erstattedes med et større tårn (ca. 12 x 15 m), der er blevet tolket som hjørnetårn i et mindre ringmursanlæg. Senere, sandsynligvis i 1300-tallet, opførtes et cirkulært tårn i sydøst (ca. 14 m i diameter, 3,5-4 m tyke mure), og de to tårne blev forbundet af en ringmur. Denne kom til at udgøre østmuren i et firesidet ringmursanlæg (ca. 45 x 60 m, 12 m højt), der kan spores i den nuværende bygnings ydermure. Hovedporten var formentlig placeret i den østre ringmur som nu. Senere i middelalderen opførtes teglstenshuse langs den søndre og vestre ringmur og muligvis en lettere bygning ved den østre ringmur. Såvel vestre ringmur som bygningen her havde udaterede forgængere. En senmiddelalderlig nordfløj var planlagt men fuldførtes aldrig. I senmiddelalderen, formentlig o. 1500, tilføjedes et cirkulært kanontårn på borgens nordvesthjørne, og to kanonskydeskår blev gennembrudt I den østre ringmur. Yderligere opførtes et kraftigt kanontårn på borgens sydvestre hjørne, og den søndre ringmur forstærkedes. I 1520’erne anlagdes mod syd og øst en ydre befæstning med kanonrondeller, og hovedindgangen befæstedes med vindebro og underjordisk porthus. Fra 1550 til 1570 ombyggedes middelalderborgen til renæssanceslot. Sønderborg Slot har en meget kompliceret bygningshistorie, som endnu ikke er fuldstændig udredt og dateret.

Presumably Sønderborg started out around 1200 as a quadrangular brick tower (8 x 8 m, 1.3 m thick walls). It was later replaced by a bigger tower (c. 12 x 15 m) which has been interpreted as a corner tower in a small quadrangular curtain wall. Later, probably in the 14th century, a circular tower (c. 14 m in diameter with 3.5-4 m thick walls) was built to the south east and the two towers were connected by a curtain wall which later formed the east side of a quadrangular curtain wall (c. 45 x 60 m, 12 m high) which can be traced in the outer walls of the present four-winged castle. The main gate was probably at its present place in the east curtain wall. In the later Middle Ages brick houses were built against the western and southern curtain wall and possibly a lighter building was constructed along the east curtain wall. Both the western curtain wall and the west wing had predecessors of unknown dates. A late medieval north wing was planned but never built. In the late middle ages, probably around 1500, a circular gun tower was added on the northwest corner of the curtain wall and two gun-loops were established in the southern part of the eastern curtain wall. In addition a strong circular gun tower (13 m in diameter, three storeys high) was added on the southwest corner of the castle and the southern curtain wall was reinforced. In the 1520s an outer fortification with artillery towers was constructed to the south and east of the castle. The main entrance was fortified with a drawbridge and a subterranean gatehouse. From 1550 to 1570 the medieval castle was rebuilt and transformed into a renaissance castle. The building history of Sønderborg is very complicated and not yet fully investigated and dated. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Det nuværende firefløjede renæssanceslot rummer rester af middelalderborgen, der blev anlagt på en lille holm ved det sydlige indløb til Alssund. Borgen omtales første gang 1256 men regnes traditionelt for påbegyndt o. 1200 som et firesidet teglstenstårn (8 x 8 m, 1,3 m tykke mure), der er udgravet i det nuværende slots nordøsthjørne. Det erstattedes senere af et større (ca. 12 x 15 m) tårn. Dette tårn antages at have indgået som hjørnetårn i et mindre ringmursanlæg. Til de ældre kendte konstruktioner hører endnu et tårn ca. 45 m sydøst for det førnævnte. Dette tårn (Blåtårn) var cirkulært (ca. 14 m i diameter med 3,5-4 m tykke mure) og planlagt som fremspringende i en 1,3 m svær nordøst-sydvestgående mur, der imidlertid aldrig blev realiseret. Tårnet, der dateres til 1300-tallet, rummede ifølge opmålinger 1708 tre overhvælvede stokværk og et øvre formentlig sekundært fjerde stokværk. I stedet kom de to tårne til at indgå i en med en øvre skyttegang med skydeskår og skoldehuller forsynet ca. 12 m høj firesidet ringmur (ca. 45 x 60 m), der kan følges i det nuværende anlægs ydermure. Den vestre ringmur har haft en forgænger med en lidt mere nordlig retning end den nuværende. Af den oprindelige hovedadgang er ikke fundet spor og den har derfor formentlig som nu været placeret i den østre ringmur. I den nordre ringmur findes umiddelbart vest for østtårnet en smal senmiddelalderlig port, tre m høj og 1,4 m bred, fladbuet i et højt spidsbuet spejl med en korsblænding. Af borgens middelalderlige bygninger er der i den nuværende vestfløjs sydlige del bevaret betydelige rester af en senmiddelalderlig bygning (14 x 25 m) med en hvælvet sal i 1. stokværks nordlige ende. I salen er der udgravet sporadiske levn (fundament og teglstensgulv) af en ældre men udateret bygning. En senmiddelalderlig nordfløj med en storslået sal har været planlagt men aldrig fuldført, mens en sydfløj i to stokværk også har eksisteret i middelalderen. Det er derimod mere tvivlsomt, om der har eksisteret en grundmuret middelalderlig østfløj men snarest en bindingsværksbygning. I senmiddelalderen, muligvis o. 1500, opførtes et cirkulært kanontårn (Arkivtårnet) på borgens nordvesthjørne. To af de oprindeligt tre stokværk er bevaret, det øvre har skydeskår til kanoner. Tårnet kan være opført af Kong Hans (1481-1513) til beskyttelse af det skibsværft, som kongen oprettede umiddelbart nord for borgen. To lignende kanonskydeskår blev i senmiddelalderen etableret i den østre ringmurs sydlige del. Også på borgens sydvesthjørne mod havet opførtes senere et kraftigt kanontårn (13 m i diameter) i tre stokværk, og samtidig forstærkedes den sydlige del af søndre ringmur, der fik skydeskår i tre etager og en øvre skyttegang. I 1520’erne anlagde Frederik I (1523-33) en ydre befæstning mod syd og øst bestående af en lav mur med en bagvedliggende kraftig jordvold samt mod øst to flankerende kanonrondeller. Ved den største nordøstre rondel befæstedes adgangsvejen yderligere med vindebro og en underjordisk portbygning. I perioden 1550-1570 ombyggedes middelalderborgen til renæssanceslot. Sønderborg Slot har en meget kompliceret bygningshistorie, som endnu ikke er fuldstændig udredt og dateret.

Remains of the medieval castle which was built on a small islet at the southern entry to Alssund are preserved in the present four-winged renaissance castle. Traditionally the castle is regarded as built around 1200 as a quadrangular brick tower begin (8 x 8 m, 1.3 m thick walls) which has been uncovered in the north east corner of the present castle. This tower was later replaced by a bigger tower (c. 12 x 15 m) which has been interpreted as a corner tower in a small quadrangular curtain wall. Later, probably in the 14th century, a circular tower (c. 14 m in diameter with 3.5-4 m thick walls) was built c. 45 m to the south east. According to drawings from 1708 the tower (Blåtårn) which was uncovered in 1930 held three vaulted floors and a later added upper floor. The tower was planned to project from a 1.3 m thick wall running northeast – southwest but this wall was never built. Instead the two towers were connected by a north – south wall which late formed the east side of a quadrangular curtain wall (c. 45 x 60 m, 12 m high) with an upper gallery with loopholes and murder holes. This curtain wall can be traced in the outer walls of the present four-winged castle. The western curtain wall had a predecessor with a slightly more northern direction than the present. The position of the original main gate is unknown which points to the conclusion that it was placed in the eastern curtain wall just as the present main gate. In the northern curtain wall just besides the northeast tower a small late medieval gate is preserved (3 m high and 1.4 m wide). The gate is flat-arched in a pointed blind arch decorated with a cross. In the southern part of the present west wing considerably remains of a late medieval building (14 x 25m) with a small vaulted hall in the northern end are preserved. In the hall a few remains (foundations and a tile floor) of an older but undated building has been uncovered. A late medieval north wing with a gigantic grand hall was planned but never built whereas openings and details in the curtain wall bears witness to the existence of a medieval two storeys high south wing. The existence of a medieval east wing of stone can be doubted but there might have been a lighter building. In the late middle ages, probably around 1500, a circular gun tower (Arkivtårnet) was added on the northwest corner of the curtain wall. Two of three storeys are preserved with gun-loops. The tower was possibly built by King Hans (1481-1513) as protection of the naval shipyard which the King established in Sønderborg just to the north of the castle. Two similar gun-loops were established in the southern part of the eastern curtain wall. In addition a strong circular gun tower (13 m in diameter, three storeys high) was added on the southwest corner of the castle facing the sea. At the same time the southern curtain wall was reinforced with loopholes in three rows and an upper gallery. In the 1520s King Frederic I (1523-1533) built an outer fortification to the south and east of the castle. It was a major rampart faced with a low wall and with two flanking artillery towers. The entrance to the castle area at the biggest tower in the north east was fortified with a drawbridge and a subterranean gatehouse. From 1550 to 1570 the medieval castle was rebuilt and transformed into a renaissance castle. The building history of Sønderborg is very complicated and not yet fully investigated and dated. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Siden begyndelsen af 1900-tallet er der gjort bygningsarkæologiske iagttagelser og foretaget arkæologiske udgravninger på Sønderborg, men først med den delvise omdannelse til museum og planer om en omfattende restaurering fandt systematiske undersøgelser af bygningen og forværkerne sted, hovedsageligt udført af arkitekt Charles Christensen 1936-42. Restaureringen stod på fra 1964-73. Skov- og Naturstyrelsen udførte 1981 en større restaurering af forværkerne (Johannes Hertz), mens Haderslev Museum senere Museum Sønderjylland i årene 1995, 2003, 2005 og 2007 udførte mindre arkæologiske undersøgelser i relation til borgen.

Archaeological observations have been recorded in the standing structure as well as in the ground since the early 20th century but systematic surveys were not started until the partial transformation of the building into a museum and the planning of a thorough restoration. These surveys were primarily carried out by the architect Charles Christensen from 1936 to 1942. The restoration took place from 1964 to 1973. In 1981 Skov- og Naturstyrelsen restored the earthworks and outer defences (Johannes Hertz) and in 1995, 2003, 2005 and 2007 the Museum in Haderslev carried out smaller excavations related to the castle.