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Kalundborg, Vestborgen (the western castle)

Geschichte:

Ifølge Krønikeskriveren Saxo grundlagde Esbern Snare af den magtfulde Hvideslægt (Valdemar den Stores (1158-1182) fostbroder) o. 1170 en borg i bunden af Kalundborg fjord. Her fandtes en naturhavn, der benyttedes som samlingssted for ledingsflåden og var godt placeret for overfart til andre landsdele. Man antager, at Esbern Snares initiativ også omfattede den øst for liggende højby, der grundlagdes på en lille banke, strækkende sig op mod 400 m fra øst til vest og ca. 200 m i bredden på det bredeste sted. Adgangen til byen foregik fra nordøst. I dag henføres byens storslåede korsformede femtårnede kirke først til tiden efter Esbern Snares død i 1204, men formentlig indgik byplanens hovedlinier i borgherrens oprindelige plan. Efter Esbern Snares død i 1204 kom borgen i datteren Ingeborgs eje, men da hun støttede det tabende parti under 1200-tallets tronstridigheder, blev den 1262 inddraget under Kronen. I 1285 blev borgen plyndret af norske fribyttere. Efter anlæggelsen, måske o. 1300, af en ny kongelig borg øst for højbyen mistede den gamle vestborg betydning og fungerede formentlig som staldgård senest o. 1500. De sidste levn af borgen synes at være forsvundet i 1700-tallet.

According to the chronicler Saxo, Esbern Snare of the powerful Hvide family (the fosterbrother of King Valdemar the Great (1158-1182)) founded a castle in the head of Kalundborg fjord around 1170. The site provided a natural harbour which was used for gathering the national fleet under royal command. Furthermore it was a point of communication between Zealand and other parts of the country. It is assumed that the initiative of Esbern Snare also included the foundation of the town to the east of the castle. The town was situated on a natural mound which measures about 400 metres from the east to the west and about 200 metres from the north to the south. Access to the town was from the northeast crossing swampy areas. The grand cross-shaped five towered church is probably a little later than Esbern Snare but supposedly the main layout of the later town was included in his masterplan. After his death in 1204 Kalundborg passed on to his daughter Ingeborg who supported the losing party during the struggles for power in the 13th century. Consequently Kalundborg was confiscated by the Crown in 1262. In 1285 the castle was plundered by Norwegian free booters. After the founding, perhaps around 1300, of a new royal castle to the east of the town the old castle to the west lost importance. Presumably it mainly served as stables around 1500 at the latest. The last remains of the castle seem to have disappeared in the 18th century. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Kalundborgs vestborg anlagdes i 1100-tallet på en tresidet banke (sidelængder ca. 80 m), der befæstedes med 3 volde og grave. Efter bankens forhøjelse etableredes langs bankens kanter en ringmur af kampesten med porttårne i vesthjørnet mod havnen og i østre ringmur mod byen samt i sydøsthjørnet endnu en tårnlignende bygning. Langs ringmurens inderside rejstes flere større bygninger, bl.a. i sydvest en 48 m langs salsbygning med kælder og hypocaust. Stenborgen dateres almindeligvis til 1100-tallets slutning, mens senere faser og lettere bygninger ikke er dateret. Senere i middelalderen, sandsynligvis senest o. 1500, nedlagdes flere bygninger til fordel for en 45 m lang treskibet bygning med en cirkulær bygning på 15 m i diameter ved sydsiden, der er tolket som henholdsvis stald og ridebane.

The western castle of Kalundborg was founded in the 12th century on a triangular mound (each side c. 80 m) which was fortified by three ramparts and moats. After the heightening of the mound a curtain wall of stone was built along the edges of the mound. The wall had a gate tower on the western corner towards the harbour, a gate tower in the east wall facing the town and a tower like building on the southeast corner. Along the curtain wall several larger buildings were constructed inside the courtyard, e.g. along the southwest wall a 48 m long hall with basement and hypocaust. The stone castle is traditionally dated to the late 12th century, while later phases and lighter buildings are not properly dated. Later in the Middle Ages, around 1500 at the latest, several buildings were demolished in favour of a 45 m long three aisled building with an adjoining circular building (15 m in diameter) to the south. The structure is interpreted as stables respectively a riding ring. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Kalundborgs vestborg anlagdes på en nærmest trekantet banke, der blev afskåret fra den øst for liggende bybanke ved en bred grav. De første anlæg på stedet synes at bestå af mindst 3 volde og grave, før banken forhøjedes. Om der kan knyttes bygninger til denne første fase er usikkert. På den forhøjede banke opførtes en tresidet ringmur af kampesten med sidelængder på ca. 80 m, og langs indersiden rejstes bygninger. I vesthjørnet fandtes et porttårn, der sandsynligvis gav adgang til den daværende havn. Også midt for den østre langside har der stået et porttårn ved adgangsvejen fra byen, mens der over sydhjørnet synes at have stået endnu en tårnlignende bygning delvist rejst over piller i voldgraven. Langs den nordvestre og østre ringmur lå der større stenbygninger i flere faser, men borgens fornemme hovedhus eller salsbygning lå langs den sydvestre ringmur. Huset var godt 48 m langt med kælder i den østlige ende. I kælderen, der er opført af kampe- og munkesten, er der fundet rester af en hypocaust samt et løst ottekantet søjleskaft med trapezkapitæl i granit. Bygningerne er af udgraveren C.M. Smidt dateret til 1100-tallets slutning. Bebyggelsens faser er ligesom de påviste lettere bygninger på banken endnu ikke dateret. Senere i middelalderen, sandsynligvis senest o. 1500, måtte flere af borgens bygninger vige pladsen for en vældig, 45 m lang treskibet bygning med en cirkulær bygning på 15 m i diameter ved sydsiden. Den cirkulære bygning, der opførtes centralt på banken, er tolket som en ridebane og den treskibede bygning derfor sandsynligvis en stald, men det udelukker ikke, at den også kan have tjent andre formål.

The western castle of Kalundborg was founded on a triangular mound which was separated from the town to the east by a broad moat. The first structures at the site seem to be a system of at least three moats and three ramparts. So far buildings have not been substantiated in this phase. After the heightening of the mound a curtain wall of stone was built along the edges of the mound (each side c. 80 m), and several larger buildings were constructed inside the courtyard. The wall had a gate tower on the western corner towards the harbour and a gate tower in the east wall facing the town. A tower like building partly resting on pillars in the moat was built on the south corner. Along the northwest and east walls remains of larger houses built in more phases have been uncovered but the main house or the Grand Hall was situated along the southwest wall. It was 48 metres long with a basement in the east part. In the basement which was built of stone and bricks the remains of a hypocaust have been uncovered and a piece of an octagonal column with a trapezium capital has been found. The stone castle is dated to the late 12th century by C.M. Smidt who first excavated the site, while later phases and lighter buildings are not yet properly dated. Later in the Middle Ages, probably around 1500 at the latest, several buildings were demolished in favour of a 45 m long three aisled building with an adjoining circular building (15 m in diameter) to the south. The circular structure which was built in the middle of the court yard has been interpreted as a riding ring hence the three aisled building probably served as stables but perhaps also other purposes. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Borgens grundplan blev frilagt ved Nationalmuseets udgravninger over flere år fra 1907 og frem (C.M. Smidt) og henligger nu som ruinpark. Den vestlige del af bybefæstningen og borgbankens østside undersøgtes arkæologisk af Nationalmuseet 1983-85 og 1988.

The ground plan of the castle was uncovered during excavations conducted by the National Museum of Denmark (C.M. Smidt) from 1907 onwards and the remains are now visible in a public park. In 1983-85 and 1988 The National Museum carried out excavations in the western part of the 14th century and later town defences and the eastern side of the castle mound.