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Kalundborg, Østborgen (the eastern castle)

Geschichte:

Skriftlige kilder beretter, at Kalundborg by og borg blev erobret og plyndret af norske fribyttere i 1285, hvilket muligvis har været én af årsagerne til anlæggelsen af en ny borg øst for byen. Efter alt at dømme er der også en sammenhæng med flytningen af byens havn nær den gamle borg vest for byen til dybere vande mod øst, formentlig på grund af stadig dybere stikkende fartøjer. Mens Vestborgen formentlig blev anlagt i 1100-tallets anden del, er det uklart, hvornår Østborgen blev grundlagt. Ofte foreslås kong Erik Menved (1286-1319) som grundlægger af Østborgen. Den må have eksisteret, da Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) under sin samling af riget forgæves forsøgte at indtage Kalundborg 1341-42, der da var på holstenske hænder. By og borg blev endelig afstået til Valdemar Atterdag i 1344 og fungerede herefter som kongelig slotslensborg. Da det var størst bestod Kalundborg len af Skippinge, Ods, Ars og Løve herreder samt Samsø. Kalundborg var en af Kronens absolut vigtigste borge, og fra Valdemar Atterdags (1340-1375) tid og frem var Kalundborg én af kongemagtens absolut hyppigst benyttede residenser. Kalundborg var rammen om vigtige og store begivenheder. Her afholdtes under Valdemar Atterdag flere Danehoffer og gennem middelalderen utallige forhandlinger og Retterting. Borgen benyttedes gennem hele middelalderen som statsfængsel; blandt fangerne var bl.a. den afsatte Christian II (1513-1523), der 1549 overførtes fra Sønderborg og var fange på Kalundborg til sin død 1559. Under Margrete I (1387-1412) blev Kalundborg yderligere det foretrukne opbevaringssted for rigets skatkammer og arkiv. Selvom København i løbet af 1400-tallet opnåede karakter af hovedstad, havde Kalundborg endnu de rette rammer og en fordelagtig central placering i riget og valgtes ofte stadig som mødested, og der var rigsarkiv på Kalundborg frem til 1582. Under Grevens Fejde (1534-36) overgav borgen sig efter en kortvarig beskydning. Under den svenske Kong Carl Gustafs besættelse af Sjælland 1658-60 blev Kalundborg Slot erobret, nedrevet og endda sprængt i luften og forsvandt i det følgende århundrede fra jordens overflade.

Written sources tell that the town and castle of Kalundborg was conquered and plundered by Norwegian Free Booters in 1285 which might very well have been a decisive reason to found a new castle to the east of the town. Presumably it was also related to the fact that the harbour was moved from the west near the old castle to deeper waters further to the east probably due to a change in ship types. It seems as the old castle was founded during the second half of the 12th century but the date of the new castle is unclear. King Eric Menved (1286-1319) is often suggested as the initiator. No doubt the castle existed when Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) during his recapture of the Kingdom tried in vain to take control of Kalundborg 1341-42 which at that time was in Holstein hands. Eventually town and castle was surrendered to the king in 1344. Hence forward the castle served as the administrative seat of a royal main fief which at its peak included Skippinge, Ods, Ars og Løve herred’s as well as the island Samsø. Kalundborg was one of the most important medieval royal castles and from Valdemar Atterdag onwards it was one of the King’s most favoured residences. Kalundborg was the setting of important events, Valdemar Atterdag summoned the Danehof (a general assembly reserved for the king, the bishops and the magnates) more times and throughout the Middle Ages numerous negotiations and Supreme Courts took place in Kalundborg. The castle served as state prison, among the prisoners was e.g. the dethroned Christian II (1513-1523) who in 1549 was moved from Sønderborg to Kalundborg where he died in 1559. Furthermore, during the reign of Margrete I (1387-1412) Kalundborg became the favoured place for the royal treasuries and the archives. Even though Copenhagen became the administrative centre in the course of the 15th century Kalundborg was still a suitable scene and centrally located. It was still used for meetings and housed an archive until 1582. During the civil war of the Counts Quarrel (1534-36) Kalundborg surrendered after a short siege,
During the Swedish King Carl Gustafs' occupation of Zeland in 1658-60 the castle in Kalundborg was captured, demolished and even blown up and during the century to follow the castle vanished from the face of the earth. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Grundlæggelsestidpunktet for den nye borg I Kalundborg øst for byen er ukendt men et tidspunkt o. 1300 er foreslået flere gange. Teglstensborgen var udlagt som et concentrisk anlæg med fem sammenbyggede fløje i midten omgivet af to ringmure. Den ydre ringmur havde fire firsidede tårne (fx Folen), et cirkulært tårn (Fars Hat) og flere halvcirkulære og omsluttede flere bygninger formentlig med økonomirelaterede funktioner. Den ydre ringmur var bygget sammen med bymuren, der er dendrokronologisk dateret til 1356, og som følge af stor lighed mellem de to mure er dateringen overført til borgens mur. I senmiddelalderen, sandsynligvis 1520’erne, opførtes nord for borgen endnu en ringmur, der omsluttede Folen. Ifølge skriftlige kilder fandtes et kapel før 1361 (dog uvis placering), og Folen eksisterede i 1400-tallet, men bortset herfra kan der ikke knyttes hverken relative eller absolutte dateringer til borgens bygninger som dog næppe repræsenterer én byggefase. Som følge af manglen på arkæologiske undersøgelser udgør en plan og et prospekt fra 1600-tallet den bedste kilde til borgens middelalderlige udformning.

The first date of the new castle in Kalundborg to the east of the town is not known but a date around 1300 has been suggested several times. The castle was built of bricks and constructed on a concentric plan with five adjoining wings in the middle surrounded by two curtain walls. The outer curtain had four quadrangular (e.g. the Foal), one circular (Father’s Hat) and several semicircular towers and it enclosed a number of probably domestic buildings. The outer curtain was built together with the similar town wall which is dendrochronologically dated to 1356 thus this date is also applied to the outer curtain of the castle. In the very late Middle Ages, probably during the 1520s, yet another outer ward was constructed to the north of the castle incorporating the great tower of the Foal. According to written sources a chapel existed before 1361 (yet uncertain location) and the Foal was in use in the 15th century but otherwise neither relative nor precise dates can be linked to the buildings of the castle which almost certainly were not the result of a single building phase. Due to the lack of archaeological surveys a 17th century drawing and plan is the best source for medieval conditions. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Kun borgens nordøstligste del er arkæologisk relativt velundersøgt, og den bedste kilde til anlæggets overordnede udformning er en plan og et prospekt af Kalundborg inklusiv borgen fra 1600-tallets midte. Flere af afbildningens enkeltheder er blevet bekræftet ved arkæologiske undersøgelser, mens enkelte er afkræftet. Borgen blev anlagt på den østlige del af en naturlig holm, der blev afskåret fra den vest for liggende bybanke ved en bred grav. Banken blev væsentligt udvidet ved opfyldning. Sandsynligvis er borgen anlagt i forbindelse med opstemning af den nord for liggende Munkesø, der gav vand til systemet af grave, der omgav og adskilte byen og begge borge. Ifølge afbildningen fra 1600-tallet bestod borgen da af en indre tårnløs ringmur, der omgav et centralt anlæg bestående af fem sammenbyggede fløje omkring en gårdsplads med brønd i midten. Udenom fandtes en ydre ringmur med halvrunde og firkantede tårne, der var sammenbygget med byens lignende befæstning. Bymurens vægtergang blev bygget af tømmer, der er dendrokronologisk dateret til sommeren 1356, og muren kan således tilskrives Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375). Langs borgen ydre ringmur fandtes yderligere et antal bygninger. Adgangen til det i dansk sammenhæng unikke koncentriske anlæg (ca. 116 x 150 m) foregik fra vest via en bro over graven mellem by og borg, mens en lille åbning mod syd i den ydre ringmur førte mod havnen. Ved arkæologiske undersøgelser er det godtgjort, at der mod middelalderens slutning blev tilføjet endnu en ringmur mod nord. Den omgav et mindre areal, en slags forborg, udenfor den ydre ringmur og omsluttede Folen, men er ikke med på 1600-talsafbildningen. I borgens ydre ringmur var foruden de halvrunde tårne indbygget et cirkulært tårn (Fars Hat), og fire firesidede (Folen, Malt-, Brygger- og Smedetårnet), der alle var delvist fremspringende. Folen, der målte hele 16x16,5 m og havde op til 3,3 m tykke mure og i modsætning til 1600-talsafbildningen var indbygget i ringmurens østre hjørne, husede kongens skatkammer og arkiv. Fars Hat, der målte 8 m i diameter, synes fortrinsvist at have haft en militær funktion og indgik i forsvaret af den komplicerede adgangsvej til borgen. De resterende tårne i den ydre ringmur havde navn efter deres funktion, i hvert fald i 1600-tallet. Om alderen på de øvrige bygninger i den ydre borggård, hvoraf kun ”Kornhuset” ved den ydre port er navngivet, kan intet siges. De har sandsynligvis rummet forskellige økonomifunktioner, stalde o. lign. Om Valdemar Atterdag har ladet alle tårne i den ydre ringmur opføre kan ikke afgøres. Folen og Fars Hat er ikke i forbandt med ringmuren, hvilket dog ikke udelukker samtidighed. Hvordan det centrale bygningskompleks tog sig ud ved Valdemars overtagelse 1344 er ligeledes uvist, men det er næppe sandsynligt, at hele det femfløjede kompleks skulle være opført i én omgang. 1600-talsplanen synes at vise anlæggets hovedetage, men det kan ikke udelukkes, at flere niveauer er blandet sammen. Ifølge planens funktionsangivelser fandtes i nordøstfløjen den store sal med fadebur og Fruerstue ved den ene ende og junkernes/riddernes gemak ved den anden. I sydøstfløjen lå kancelliet og kirken, der sandsynligvis omfattede to stokværk og da tilsyneladende var borgens eneste overhvælvede rum. Et borgkapel eksisterede før 1361, og 1364 omtales et St. Georgs kapel og 1437 et Johannes Evangelist kapel. I sydfløjen fulgte herefter rustkammer og en række uidentificerede værelser, mens sydvestfløjen husede borgestuen, køkken, spisekammer og spisekælderen. Herefter fulgte portgennemgangen og et par værelser i nordvestfløjen.

Excavations have only been carried out in the northeast part of the castle and the most important source for medieval conditions is a drawing and plan of Kalundborg from the middle of the 17th century. Several details of the drawing have been confirmed by excavations while some have been ruled out. The castle was built on a mound which was separated from the town to the west by a broad moat. The mound was extensively enlarged and the Lake Munkesøen to the north was dammed in order to provide water for the system of moats surrounding and separating the town and the two castles. According to the 17th century drawing and plan the castle then appeared as five adjoining wings around a central courtyard with a well in the middle surrounded by an inner curtain wall. An outer curtain wall with four quadrangular, one circular and several semicircular towers was built together with the similar town wall. The wooden gallery of the town wall was built of timber which has been dendrochronologically dated to the summer of 1356 thus Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) must be the initiator. The concentric plan of the castle (c. 116 x 150 m) is unparalleled in Danish castle architecture. The four quadrangular towers of the outer curtain were named the Foal, the Malt Tower, the Brewer’s Tower and the Smith’s Tower which indicate the functions of the towers at least in the 17th century. The Foal in the east corner measured 16 x 16.5 metres and had 3.3 metres thick walls. The great tower which housed the royal treasury and archive was built against the curtain wall though it stands alone on the otherwise reliable 17th century drawing. The circular tower named Father’s Hat which measured 8 metres in diameter primarily served military purposes. It protected the complicated road of access in the north corner of the castle. The main access from the outside was from a bridge crossing the moat separating town and castle while a small gate in the south curtain provided access to the harbour. Additional buildings in the outer ward probably served domestic purposes. Only the granary at the gate in the north corner is named on the 17th century drawing. Archaeological surveys have proved that yet another curtain was added to the north in the very late Middle Ages. The wall surrounded a small bailey-like area outside the outer curtain and enclosed the Foal but it is not included on the 1700th century drawing. Whether Valdemar Atterdag built all towers of the outer curtain or not is unclear. Both the Foal and Father’s Hat are not bonding with the curtain which anyway does not necessarily rule out simultaneousness. How the central castle appeared at King Valdemar’s assumption is not clear either but it seems highly unlikely that all five wings were the result of a single building phase. The 17th century drawing and plan appears to depict the main floor of the castle but it cannot be discarded that more floors are mixed. According to the drawing the northeast wing held the Great Hall with the pantry and the ladies’ apartment at one end and the knights’ apartment at the other. The southeast wing housed the chancellery and the chapel which then seems to have been the only vaulted room of the main castle and probably covered two floors. A chapel existed before 1361 and in 1364 the Chapel of St. George and in 1437 the Chapel of John the Baptist is mentioned. The south wing housed the armoury and several unidentified rooms. The southwest wing housed the servants’ dining room, the kitchen, the larder and probably a scullery. The northwest wing housed the gate and some unidentified rooms. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Rester af borgen blev påtruffet i forbindelse med opførelsen af byens rådhus ved 1800-tallets midte, men registrerede arkæologiske undersøgelser begrænser sig til den nordøstre del af den ydre borggård, hvor ruiner af en del af ringmuren og tårnene Fars Hat og Folen er frilagt. Her forestod Nationalmuseet undersøgelser i 1900-tallets første årtier (C.M.Smidt, Hugo Matthiessen), og igen i 1970’erne (Morten Aamann Sørensen).

When the town hall was built in the middle of the 19th century remains of the castle were uncovered but proper excavations according to scientific standards have only been carried out in the northeast part of the outer ward where remains of the curtain wall and the towers named Fars Hat (Father’s Hat) and Folen (the Foal) are visible. The National Museum of Denmark conducted the work in the early decades of the 20th century (C.M.Smidt, Hugo Matthiessen), and once again in the 1970’s (Morten Aamann Sørensen).