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Kalø

Geschichte:

Kalø omtales første gang 1314 og blev ifølge samtidige skriftlige kilder grundlagt 1313-1314 af Erik Menved (1286-1319), der efter at have nedkæmpet et bondeoprør i 1312 pålagde bønderne strafafgifter og tvang dem til at bygge borge. Christoffer II (1320-1326, 1329-1332) forpligtede sig i sin håndfæstning til med undtagelse af Skanderborg, Riberhus og Koldinghus at nedrive alle kongelige borge i Nørrejylland, herunder også Kalø, der siden pantsattes til de holstenske grever. Under sin samling af riget kom Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) i besiddelse af Kalø 1353, som han imidlertid senere pantsatte til Århus Bispestol. Borgen indløstes af Margrete I (1387-1412) i 1407, og den forblev herefter i kronens besiddelse. Fra Kalø administreredes et hovedlen bestående af Djurslands fire herreder samt øen Anholt. I 1518 var den senere svenske konge Gustav Vasa fængslet på Kalø, indtil det lykkedes ham at flygte til Lübeck det følgende år. Kalø slotslen nedlagdes 1660, hvorefter borgen blev nedrevet.

Kalø is mentioned in written sources for the first time in 1314. As stated by contemporary sources it was founded by Erik Menved (1286-1319) who after defeating a peasant’s revolt in 1312 forced the peasants to pay penalty and built fortifications. With the exemption of Skanderborg, Riberhus and Koldinghus King Christopher II (1320-1326, 1329-1332) was according to his coronation charter obliged to pull down the royal castles of Northern Jutland, including Kalø which was later pawned to the counts of Holstein. During his recapture of the Kingdom King Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) took control of Kalø in 1353 but he later pawned the castle to the Bishop of Århus. The castle was redeemed by Queen Margrete I (1387-1412) in 1407 and was hence forward royal property. Kalø was the administrative seat of a royal main fief which included all four herred’s on the Djursland peninsula as well as the island of Anholt. In 1518 the later Swedish King Gustav Vasa was imprisoned at Kalø until his escape to Lübeck the following year. The fief was dissolved in 1660 ensued by the demolition of the castle. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Kalø påbegyndtes 1313 som et ringmursanlæg i tegl med et cirkulært tårn på nordhjørnet og et firesidet tårn i den søndre ringmur. Den 500 m lange brolagte vejdæmning fra fastlandet hører til det ældste anlæg, ligesom også forborgen med mindst én stenbygning. Byggeriet synes at være standset pludseligt, men inden længe bygges en ny borg på resterne af de gamle mure. Den bestod af en firesidet ringmur (ca. 70 x 80 m) opdelt i et omtrent kvadratisk anlæg med bygninger langs ringmuren og et stort firesidet tårn ved siden af porten i den søndre ringmur samt en mindre rektangulær forgård med en portbygning i syd. Genopførelsen er formentlig sket i løbet af 1300-tallets anden og tredje fjerdedel. Udgraveren C.M. Smidt kom frem til, at hovedtårnet var opført først, dernæst ringmuren omkring hovedborgen efterfulgt af sydøstfløjens østlige del og den lange nordøstfløj. Senere tilkom sydøstfløjens vestlige del og sydvestfløjen efterfulgt af forgårdens ringmur. O. 1500 etableredes en firelænget ladegård i bindingsværk med to foranliggende damme på arealet foran forborgen. Muligvis blev den oprindelige forborg ved denne lejlighed omdannet til ridebane.

Kalø started out in 1313 as a quadrangular curtain wall built of bricks with a circular tower on the north corner and a quadrangular tower in the southern curtain wall. The 500 m long paved dam was part of the first castle as well as the bailey and its stone house. Building seems to have stopped abruptly but before long a new castle reusing the remains of its predecessor was commenced. The new castle was a quadrangular curtain wall (c. 70 x 80 m) divided in a main ward with buildings against the curtain and a strong quadrangular tower beside the gate in the south curtain and a rectangular barbican-like forecourt with a projecting gatehouse to the south. Presumably building took place during the second and third quarter of the 14yth century. C.M. Smidt who was in charge of the first excavations reached the conclusion that the main tower represented the first building stage followed by the curtain surrounding the main ward. The next step involved the eastern part of the southeast wing and the northeast wing. Later the western part of the southeast wing and the southwest wing were built followed by the curtain of the forecourt. Around 1500 a for-winged farm with two ponds in front of it was built in the area in front of the bailey. Possibly the old bailey was converted into a riding ground at the same time. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Kalø blev anlagt på en ca. 550 x 350 m stor ø med toppunkt 21 m over havets overflade. Øen var omgivet af lavt vand og skibe kunne kun lægge til ved en lille ladeplads på øens østside. Forbindelsen til fastlandet udgjordes af en 500 m lang brolagt vejdæmning. Borgen blev opført på øens yderste plateau og adskilt fra den foranliggende forborg ved en tør voldgrav. Under den senere ringmursborg (70 x 80 m) er der fundet rester af Erik Menveds anlæg fra 1313-14 i form af ringmure i tegl under den senere vestre og østre ringmur samt et rundt tårn (9,5 m i diameter, 2 m tykke mure) på nordhjørnet. Også under det senere kernetårn ved porten i den søndre indre ringmur har der stået en forgænger, der delvist indgår i det yngre tårn. Byggeriet af den første borg synes at være standset pludseligt, men der er efter alt at dømme ikke gået lang tid, før bogen blev genopført over stort set den samme grundplan. Genopførelsen er formentlig sket under Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) men kan være igangsat af de holstenske pantherrer. Den nye ringmursborg var opdelt i et omtrent kvadratisk anlæg med bygninger langs ringmuren og et stort firesidet tårn ved siden af porten i den søndre ringmur samt en mindre rektangulær forgård med et fremspringemde porttårn eller portbygning i syd samt et mindre cirkulært tårn på østhjørnet. I forgården fandtes en smedje. Det store tårn, der er bevaret i 14 m højde over fundamentet og målte 12 x 12 m med 3 m tykke mure, omfattede 3 stokværk over kælder og synes fortrinsvist at have tjent militære formål. Det blev opført i tre etaper sandsynligvis over 3 somre. Den 48 m lange nordøstfløj bestod af bestod af to sammenbyggede huse, hvis hovedetage if. senere inventarier og synsforretninger fra 15-1600-tallet rummede den store sal (17 x 10 m) og et kammer i den ene ende samt kapel og kammer i den anden ende, mens underetagen anvendtes til arsenal og krudtlager. Sydøstfløjen kaldtes Fruerstuefløjen men rummede svendekælder og forrådsrum i underetagen, mens lensmandens bolig var placeret i hovedetagen, der havde hemmelighed med udvendig faldskakt med afløb i forgården. Den 38 m lange sydvestfløj rummede stegers, bagers og bryggers og mod nordvest hjørnet lå en bindingsværksbygning. Ved den nordvestre ringmur lå flere mindre huse, og i borgens sidste tid opførtes her den såkaldte Skriverstue. Fra porthuset førte en vindebro over graven til forborgen, der afgrænsedes mod øst af palisade. På det til dels kunstigt skabte plateau er fundet fundamenter fra et stenhus sandsynligvis fra 1300-tallets begyndelse samt rester af muligvis endnu en middelalderlig bygning. Forborgen blev senere planeret og tildannet til et ca. 50 x 50 m stort areal, der anvendtes som ridebane. På arealet foran forborgen etableredes omkring 1500 en firelænget ladegård med stalde og lader i bindingsværk. Den nye forborg afgrænsedes mod landsiden af to lave grave eller snarere damme og en lav voldligende højning. Muligvis blev den gamle forborg omdannet til ridebane ved denne tid.

Kalø was built on an islet (c. 550 x 350 m) rising 21 metres above the surface of the sea. The islet was surrounded by shallow waters and could only be reached by ship at a small harbour on its east coast. Access from the mainland was provided by a 500 m long paved dam. The castle was built on the edge of the islet and separated from the bailey in front by a deep dry moat. Underneath the later castle (70 x 80 m) remains of Eric Menved’s castle from 1313-14 have been found in the shape of curtain walls of bricks beneath the later western and eastern curtain as well as a circular tower (9.5 m in diameter, 2 m thick walls) on the north corner. Moreover the later main tower beside the gate was built on the remains of an older tower. Construction of the first castle seems to have stopped abruptly but before long a new castle was apparently commenced on the same general layout as the old one. The new castle was probably built by King Valdemar Atterdag (1340-1375) but it might be initiated by the Holstein holders of the castle. The new castle was made up by an almost square main ward surrounded by a curtain wall with buildings sited against it and a strong quadrangular tower beside the gate in the south curtain and a rectangular barbican-like forecourt surrounded by a curtain with a projecting gatehouse to the south and a small circular tower at its east corner. In the forecourt a smithy has been found. The great tower (12 x 12 m, 3 m thick walls) which is preserved to a height of about 14 metres above foundations had three storeys above basement. It seems primarily to have served military purposes. It was built during three stages, probably during three summers. The 48 metres long northeast wing was made up by two adjoining houses. According to 16th and 17th century inventories the main floor held the hall (17 x 10 m) and a chamber at one end and the chapel and a chamber at the other end while the ground floor housed the armoury and powder magazine. The southeast wing was named the lady’s bower but held the guardsroom and storerooms on the ground floor and the bailiff’s quarters on the upper floor with a privy draining into the forecourt. The 38 metres long southwest wing housed the kitchen, the bakery and the brewery and a timberframed house at its west end. Several buildings were sited against the northwest curtain, e.g. the scribe’s office. From the gatehouse a drawbridge led to the bailey which was edged by palisade to the east. On the partially artificial plateau of the bailey foundations of a probably early 14th century stone building and remains of possibly one more medieval building have been uncovered. Later the bailey was levelled and transformed into a riding ground (50 x 50 m). In the area in front of the bailey a four-winged farm with timber-framed stables and barns was built around 1500. Towards the mainland this new bailey had two shallow moats or rather ponds and a low rampart-like structure. Possibly the old bailey was converted into a riding ground at the same time. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Fra 1903 ff. foretog Nationalmuseet (C.M. Smidt) frilægning, udgravning og restaurering af borgruinen, og i 1960’erne restaureredes dæmningen. I 1993 undersøgtes den firlængede staldgård (Jørgen Frandsen), og i 2006 udførte Nationalmuseet undersøgelser på forborgene (Vivian Etting/Nils Engberg).

From 1903 and several years onwards the National Museum of Denmark (C.M. Smidt) carried out archaeological surveys and restoration works of the castle ruin and in the 1960’s the paved dam was restored. In 1993 the four-winged farm was partly uncovered (Jørgen Frandsen) and in 2006 The National Museum of Denmark (Vivian Etting/Nils Engberg) carried out excavations in the baileys.