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Hammershus

Geschichte:

Omstændighederne vedrørende grundlæggelsen af Hammershus på Bornholm, en af de største borge i Nordeuropa, har været omdiskuteret. Det ligger dog fast, at borgen blev grundlagt på et tidspunkt mellem det tidlige 1200-tal og tiden o. 1260. Bygherrerne var muligvis ærkebispen af Lund Anders Sunesen og Valdemar Sejr (1202-1241) i fællesskab i forbindelse med deres togter i Baltikum eller muligvis ærkebispen på egen hånd som et modtræk til kongens borg Lilleborg midt på øen. Under alle omstændigheder var Hammershus og Bornholm et stridens æble mellem ærkebisp og konge gennem hele middelalderen. Borgens placering havde indlysende strategiske fordele, idet man herfra kunne overvåge havet mellem Bornholm og Skåne og kontrollere trafikken mellem den østlige og vestlige del af Østersøen. Efter talrige stridigheder og kampe var Hammershus i ærkebispens besiddelse fra 1362 til 1522, da Christian II (1513-1522) med diplomatiske midler overtog borgen. Mellem 1523 og 1525 var Hammershus igen centrum i dramatiske begivenheder og kampe men dog officielt i ærkebiskoppens besiddelse. I 1525 overtog den danske konge borgen ved mageskifte for at kunne overdrage den til lübeckerne til gengæld for Gotland. Lübeckerne sad herefter lovformeligt på Hammershus fra 1526-1576. Med tiden mistede borgen sin militære betydning og blev endeligt nedlagt 1743, hvorefter nedrivningen begyndte.

The circumstances regarding the foundation of Hammershus on the island of Bornholm, one of the largest castles in Northern Europe, have been much debated. It is however safe to say that the castle was first built sometime in the period between the early 13th century and about 1260. The initiators might be a coalition of the archbishop of Lund Anders Sunesen and the Danish King Valdemar the Victorius (1202-1241) in the early 13th century in relation to their crusades in the Baltic States or it might be the archbishop exclusively about the middle of the century in opposition to the royal castle of Lilleborg at the centre of the island of Bornholm. However, Hammershus and the island of Bornholm itself was an eternal apple of discord between the Danish King and the archbishop throughout the Middle Ages. The location of the castle had obvious strategic advantages as it was possible to monitor the sea between Bornholm and Scania and to control traffic between the eastern and the western part of the Baltic Sea. Following numerous struggles and sieges the castle was controlled by the archbishop from 1362 to 1522 when Christian II (1513-1523) managed to win the castle by means of diplomacy. From 1523-25 the castle was once again the centre of dramatic events and sieges but officially controlled by the archbishop. In 1525 the King purchased the castle by exchange of property in order to hand it over to Lübeck in exchange of the island of Gotland. The Hanse town controlled the castle legally from 1526 to 1576. Gradually Hammershus lost its military importance and was eventually abandoned in 1743; shortly after demolition began. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Det er blevet foreslået, at Hammershus’ grundplan bestående af et centralt hovedanlæg omgivet af fire forborge skulle være udlagt fra starten I 1200-tallet, om end utallige ombygninger og nye tiltag fandt sted gennem hele middelalderen. Byggeriet startede med det store centraltårn og den indre ringmur, der blev opført af granit med kreneleret vægtergang i tegl. Tårnet blev forhøjet i teglsten to gange, formentlig i 1300-tallet og igen i 1500-tallet. Med tiden opførtes bygninger langs ringmuren, hvoraf en del af sydfløjen synes at være ældst. Forborgenes ringmure, der kan konstateres at være forstærket mindst to gange, blev også opført i granit med kreneleret vægtergang i tegl. Tårnet ved porten mellem den indre forborg og den østre forborg er samtidig med ringmuren, mens porthuset mod den nordre forborg samt tårnet i den indre forborgs vesthjørne mod havet er tilføjet senere, hvilket gælder hovedparten af de økonomirelaterede huse, der er bygget langs ringmurene. Et større hus i den nordre forborg samt det ydre porthus synes at tilhøre borgens første tid, mens de forskellige åbne og halvrunde tårne blev tilføjet i 1500-tallet.

It has been suggested that the general layout of Hammershus, a central main castle in the middle surrounded by four outer baileys, was planned from the start in the 13th century though rebuilding and numerous additions took place during the centuries. Building started with the keep in the middle and the inner curtain built of granite boulders with battlements in brick. The tower was heightened in brick two times, probably in the 14th and 16th centuries. In time buildings were constructed against the curtain probably starting out with a part of the south wing. The curtains surrounding the baileys were also built of granite boulders with a battlement in brick and have been reinforced at least twice. The tower next to the gate to the eastern outer bailey is contemporary with the curtain whereas the gate house towards the northern outer baileys and the quadrangular tower facing the sea on the western corner of the curtain are later additions which is probably also the case regarding the majority of the domestic houses built against the curtain of the inner bailey. A large house in the northern outer bailey as well as the outer gate house seem to belong to the first buildings stages of the castle whereas the various open and semicircular towers and turrets were added in the 16th century. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Hammershus var et enormt borganlæg bestående af en central hovedborg omgivet af 4 forborge, hvis ringmure fulgte klippens naturlige form. Neden for klippen fandtes et system af dæmninger og damme. Tidligere troede man, at borgen var udbygget gradvist, men nyere undersøgelser tyder på, at den overordnede grundplan blev udlagt fra starten, om end borgen blev ombygget og udvidet gennem hele middelalderen. Borgens centrale element var et stort tårn, senere kendt som Manteltårnet, der beskyttede indgangen til den indre borg. Det næsten kvadratiske tårn målte ca. 12,6 x 12,6 m og havde 1,65 m tykke mure. Da hovedparten af tårnet endnu er bevaret, er det muligt at udskille tre byggefase. Fase 1 omfattede de tre nedre stokværk opført i granit samt et fjerde stokværk med kreneleret vægtergang i tegl. Fase 2, sandsynligvis fra 1300-tallet, omfattede et femte stokværk i tegl med en ny kreneleret vægtergang. I fase 3 ved 1500-tallets midte, blev det sjette stokværk tilføjet, og tårnet fik et dobbelt saddeltag. Tårnets hvælvede portgennemgang var forsynet med faldgitter, og adgangen til de øvre stokværk foregik gennem et separat trappetårn i borggården. Ifølge kilder fra 15- og 1600-tallet rummede tårnet da kancelliet, den gamle sal, arsenalet samt beboelses- og opbevaringsrum. Den indre ringmur, som er i forbandt med Manteltårnet, var opført af granit i højde med tårnets to nedre stokværk og herover en kreneleret vægtergang i tegl. Med tiden opførtes bygninger langs ringmuren: mod syd lensmanden bolig, som er en af de ældste bygninger, og senere fulgte kapel (eneste helt teglsatte hus på borgen) og borgestue mod nord og køkken mod vest. Ringmurene omkring forborgene var ligeledes opført i granit med kreneleret vægtergang i tegl og kan konstateres at være forstærket mindst to gange. I sydvesthjørnet af den indre forborgs ringmur fandtes en mindre port mod havet (en udfaldsport?) og smalle porte i ringmuren førte til hver af de tre ydre forborge henholdsvis nord, øst og syd for hovedborgen. Tårnet (Blommetårnet) ved siden af porten til den ydre østre forborg er samtidig med ringmuren, mens porthuset mod den nordre ydre forborg samt det firesidede tårn (Hundetårnet) mod havet i den indre forborgs vesthjørne er senere tilføjelser. Dette gælder også flertallet af de økonomirelaterde bygninger, der opførtes langs den indre forborgs ringmur. Borgen forsynedes med vand fra to damme i forborgene. Adgangen til Hammershus foregik fra en bro og et oprindeligt porthus i øst, der førte til den ydre østre forborg, hvor den brolagte adgangsvej var beskyttet af en langsgående mur. På vejen passerede man en større bygning, senere kendt som Tinghuset, der menes at høre til blandt borgens første bygninger. Mens lübeckerne beherskede borgen i 1500-tallet tilkom ringmurenes åbne og halvcirkulære tårne og sandsynligvis også det runde tårn på Manteltårnets nordhjørne.

Hammershus was an enormous structure with a main castle in the middle surrounded by four outer baileys following the natural shape of the cliff. Below the cliff was a system of dams and ponds. Previously it was thought that the castle was gradually enlarged but new investigations indicate that the general layout was planned from the start though rebuilding and numerous additions took place during the centuries. The central feature of the castle was the great keep in the middle, later known as the Mantel tower (similar to shell keep), which guarded the entrance to the inner ward of the main castle. The almost square tower which was actually a gate tower measured about 12.6 m on each side with 1.65 m thick walls. As the major part of the tower is still preserved it is possible to establish three building phases. Phase 1 includes the three lower storeys built of granite boulders and a forth storey built in brick with battlements. Phase 2, probably in the 14th century, includes the fifth storey built in brick with a new battlement. Finally, in phase 3 in the mid 16th century a sixth floor was added and the tower was roofed with a double saddleback roof. The arched gateway had a portcullis and access to the upper storeys which had privies and fireplace was provided by an external staircase inside the inner ward. According to 16th and 17th sources the tower then housed the chancellery, the old hall and the armoury besides rooms for general storing and habitation. The inner curtain wall which bonds with the tower was built of granite boulders to a height which corresponded with the two lower storeys of the tower and on top of this a battlement in brick. In time buildings were constructed against the curtain: to the south the bailiff’s quarters which is one of the first buildings, and later followed the chapel (the only structure mainly built of brick) and the servants’ hall to the north and the kitchen to the west. The curtains surrounding the baileys were also built of granite boulders with a battlement in brick and have been reinforced at least twice. In the southwest corner the curtain of the inner bailey had a gate towards the sea (a sally-port?) and small gates in the wall led to each of the three outer baileys respectively to the north, east and south of the main castle. The tower (the Plum tower) beside the gate to the eastern outer bailey is contemporary with the curtain whereas the gate house towards the northern outer baileys and the quadrangular tower (the Dog’s tower) facing the sea on the western corner of the curtain are later additions which is also the case regarding the majority of the domestic houses built against the curtain of the inner bailey. Water was supplied from two ponds in the baileys. Access to the castle was from a bridge and an original gate house to the east leading to the eastern outer bailey where the narrow paved access road was protected by yet another wall. On your way you passed a large house, the later so called court house, which supposedly is one of the first buildings of the castle. During the period of which Lübeck controlled the castle in the 16th century the curtain walls were provided with several open, semicircular towers and the circular turret on the north corner of the main tower was probably added. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Fra 1886-1928 foretoges omfattende frilægning, udgravninger og restaureringsarbejder under ledelse af P. Hauberg. Restaureringsarbejdet er fortsat løbende, i de seneste årtier ved Kjeld Borch Vesth. I tilknytning til restaureringsarbejder foretog Nationalmuseet i 2003 en udgravning ved bryghuset vestligt i den indre forborg (Nils Engberg).

From 1886 to 1928 P. Hauberg directed major restoration works and excavations. Restoration has continued on a regular basis, in the latest decades conducted by Kjeld Borch Vesth. In relation to restoration The National Museum of Denmark carried out an archaeological survey at the Brewery in the western part of the inner bailey (Nils Engberg).