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Tårnborg

Geschichte:

Tårnborg omtales første gang i Kong Valdemars Jordebog omkring 1230 men regnes for at være anlagt af Valdemar den Store (1157-1182) i sammenhæng med borgene Nyborg og Sprogø som led i en befæstningskæde tværs over Storebælt. Ca. 1200 grundlagdes en bybebyggelse ved naturhavnen øst for borgen på et sted, hvor der allerede i vikingetiden og den tidlige middelalder havde været en ladeplads og overfartssted til Fyn. I 1200-tallets første del påbegyndtes opførelsen af en kirke mellem by og borg. Fra midten af 1200-tallet opholdt kongerne sig jævnligt på borgen, særligt Erik Menved (1286-1319), der afholdt Danehof her o. 1308. Tårnborg skal være nedbrændt af norske fribyttere 1289, og der blev kæmpet om stedet flere gange i 1300-tallets begyndelse. Byen, der er tolket som en kongelig kontrolleret permanent markedsplads, synes ligesom borgen at have nået sit højdepunkt i perioden 1250-1350. At dømme efter de mange tusinde møntfund har man på stedet kunnet veksle mønter i forbindelse med 12- og 1300-tallets mange pengeombytninger. Tårnborg blev nedlagt af Erik af Pommern (1396-1439) i 1420’erne til fordel for borgen i Korsør ved indsejlingen til noret, der også overtog lenet bestående af Flakkebjerg og Slagelse herreder. En medvirkende forklaring er muligvis behovet for dybere vande pga. stadig dybere stikkende fartøjer. Angiveligt blev Tårnborg på kongens ordre nedbrudt af Korsørs borgere, og muligvis genanvendtes materialer til byggeri på borgen i Korsør. Bybebyggelsen ved Tårnborg synes at være nedlagt helt senest o. 1450, mens Korsør derimod fik købstadrettigheder i 1425. Tårnborgs ladegård, der lå nord for borgen, blev 1459 overdraget til Korsørs borgere mod en årlig afgift, og efter alt at dømme flyttedes gården på et tidspunkt herefter længere mod syd, nærmere Korsør.

Tårnborg is mentioned in written sources for the first time in Liber Census Daniæ c. 1231 but is regarded as founded by king Valdemar the Great (1157-1182) in relation to the castles on Sprogø and in Nyborg which formed a defensive line across the Great Belt. Around 1200 a settlement came into existence at the anchorage to the east of the castle which had served as harbour and a station of crossing the Great Belt to Funen since the Viking Age and early Middle Ages. In the early 13th century construction of a church situated between castle and town was commenced. From the mid 13th century the kings very often stayed at Tårnborg, especially Eric Menved (1286-1319) who summoned a national assembly (Danehof) at the site about 1308.Tårnborg was supposedly burned down by Norwegian freebooters in 1289 and it was besieged on several occations in the early 14th century. The settlement which has been interpreted as a permanent marketplace controlled by the King seems to have reached its peak between 1250 and 1350 just as the castle. Judging by the thousands of coins found at the site it probably served as a change booth in relation to the enforced exchange of coinage which took place quite often in the 13th and 14th centuries. Tårnborg
was abandoned by Eric of Pomerania (1396-1439) in the 1420s in favour of Korsør at the entry of the cove which also took over the fief including Flakkebjerg and Slagelse herred’s. One of the decisive reasons was perhaps the need for deeper waters because of a change in ship types. Apparently the castle was pulled downed by the people of Korsør on the King’s order and possibly building materials were reused at the castle in Korsør. The settlement at Tårnborg seems to have been completely abandoned around 1450 at the very latest while Korsør on the other hand was granted its municipal charter in 1425. The manorial farm of the castle sited to the north of it was handed over to the people of Korsør in 1459 in exchange of an annual rent. Apparently the farm was later moved further to the south, closer to Korsør. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Bauentwicklung:

Borgen regnes for anlagt under Valdemar den Store (1157-1182) og blev nedlagt af Erik af Pommern (1396-1439) i 1420’erne. Der kan ikke konstateres byggefaser i borgen på baggrund af det foreliggende materiale. O. 1200 etableredes øst for borgen en bybebyggelse, der nåede sit højdepunkt o. 1250-1350 men var helt nedlagt senest o. 1450. En kirke opførtes mellem by og borg i 1200-tallets første del.

The castle is regarded as founded by Valdemar the Great (1157-1182) and it was abandoned by Eric of Pomerania (1396-1439) in the 1420s. Based on the archaeological records no building phases of the castle can be deduced. Around 1200 a settlement which reached its peak c. 1250-1350 but was abandoned c. 1450 at the latest developed. A church was built in the first half of the 13th century. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Baubeschreibung:

Resterne af Tårnborg ligger på et 7 m højt, omtrent kvadratisk voldsted (69 x 69 m) med afrundede hjørner. Borgen bestod af et kvadratisk, fritstående tårn omgivet af en næsten kvadratisk ringmur med 1,6 m tykke mure. Resterne af tårnets murkerne målte 8 x 8 m ved udgravningen 1894, dvs. tårnet har været noget større. Tårn og ringmur har været opført af tegl over kampestensfundamenter. Den ca. 2,5 m brede port var placeret i den østre ringmur. Der er påvist rester af mindst tre lettere, muligvis fritstående bygninger på syldsten indenfor ringmuren mod henholdsvis syd, vest og nord. Den bedst bevarede vestlige bygning målte ca. 9 x 5 m og havde rester af et ovnfundament i teglsten, mens det nordre hus har været udstyret med hypocaust. Fra porten gik en brolagt vej med adgang til de tre huse rundt om tårnet. Den tilhørende ladegårdsbanke nord for borgen har været omgivet af 4,5 m brede og 1,4 m dybe grave, der er dokumenteret ved en mindre udgravning og fremgår af luftfotos men ikke længere er synlige i landskabet. Der er endvidere påtruffet rester af en bygning med teglstensgulv på ladegårdsbanken. På det flade område langs noret syd og øst for borgen og kirken lå byen Tårnborg, der dækkede et ca. 6 hektar stort areal og bestod af tætliggende små bindingsværkshuse med brolagte gårdspladser og kampestensbrønde. På stedet og de omliggende marker er fundet mange tusinde genstande, bl.a. mere end 4000 mønter med en koncentration i perioden 1250-1350.

The remains of Tårnborg are situated on a 7 metres high almost square mound (69 x 69 m) with rounded corners. The castle was made up of a square central tower surrounded by a nearly square curtain wall with 1.6 metres thick walls. When uncovered in 1894 the remains of the core of the walls of the tower measured 8 x 8 metres thus the tower must have been somewhat larger. Both the tower and the curtain were built in brick above stone foundations which are still sporadically visible. The 2.5 metres wide gate was located in the eastern curtain facing the nearby church and settlement. In the courtyard remains of at least three lighter buildings to the north, west and south have been substantiated. Seemingly, they were not built against the curtain. The best preserved house which measured c. 9 x 5 metres held the remains of brick foundations for an oven while the northern house was provided with a hypocaust. From the gate a paved road circled the tower and provided access to all three houses. The mound of the manorial farm of the castle which was sited to the north of Tårnborg was surrounded by a 4.5 metres wide and 1.4 metres deep moat which has been substantiated by a small excavation. The moat is clearly visible on aerial photos but no longer evident in the landscape. Traces of a building with a tile floor have been uncovered at the site. The town-like settlement of Tårnborg which covered an area of about 15 acres was situated on the flat area along the shore of the cove to the south and east of the castle. It was characterized by closely situated small half-timbered houses with paved yards and stone wells. At the site and in the surrounding fields thousands of artefacts have been found, e.g. more than 4000 coins mainly covering the period from c. 1250 to 1350. (H. M. Møller Nielsen)

Arch-Untersuchung/Funde:

Borgen blev udgravet i 1894 af Nationalmuseet (V. Boye) og besigtiget af P. Hauberg 1904. Fra 1984-1987 blev dele af bybebyggelsen udgravet af Nationalmuseet og Arkæologisk Værksted i Korsør. Ved undersøgelserne fandtes mange tusinde fund, bl.a. over 4000 mønter. I 1986 foretog Arkæologisk Værksted i Korsør en mindre undersøgelse på den nord for liggende ladegårdsbanke, hvor der i 1948 var blevet gravet på privat initiativ.

The castle was excavated in 1894 by the National Museum of Denmark and inspected by P. Hauberg in 1904. From 1984-1987 parts of the settlement was excavated by the National Museum of Denmark and the Department of Archaeology in Korsør. Thousands of artefacts were found, e.g. more than 4000 coins. In 1986 the Department of Archaeology in Korsør carried out small scale excavations at the manorial farm of the castle. Small trenches at the site had been dug on a private initiative in 1948.